Tuesday, April 21, 2009




7 And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come and see.
8 And I looked, and behold a pale horse:(CHLORES GREEN) and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword,(WEAPONS) and with hunger,(FAMINE) and with death,(INCURABLE DISEASES) and with the beasts of the earth.(ANIMAL TO HUMAN DISEASE).




18 By these three was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths.(NUCLEAR BOMBS)



LUKE 17:34-37
34 I tell you, in that night there shall be two men in one bed; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left.(1 taken/1 left)(thats half dead)
35 Two women shall be grinding together; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
36 Two men shall be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
37 And they answered and said unto him, Where, Lord? And he said unto them, Wheresoever the body is, thither will the eagles be gathered together.(Christians have new bodies,this is the people against Jerusalem during the 7 yr treaty)(Christians bodies are not being eaten by the birds).

MATTHEW 24:37-51
37 But as the days of Noe were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.
38 For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark,
39 And knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.
40 Then shall two be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
41 Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
42 Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come.
43 But know this, that if the goodman of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up.
44 Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh.
45 Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat in due season?
46 Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.
47 Verily I say unto you, That he shall make him ruler over all his goods.
48 But and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming;
49 And shall begin to smite his fellowservants, and to eat and drink with the drunken;
50 The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of,
51 And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.


Unconventional biological threats and the molecular biological response to biological threats.Greenfield RA, Lutz BD, Huycke MM, Gilmore MS.

Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, USA. ronald-greenfield@ouhsc.edu.This article concludes this symposium on potential agents of warfare and terrorism with discussion of 3 topics. First, influenza A virus is discussed as a potential biological weapon. Although it does not receive much attention in this role, the potential for mass casualties and public panic certainly exist if an epidemic of a virulent influenza A virus were initiated. Second, agroterrorism, terrorism directed at livestock or poultry or crops, is briefly discussed. Finally, the potential role of techniques of modern molecular biology to create new agents for bioterrorism or enhance the terrorist potential of available agents, and the known roles of these techniques in defense against biological warfare or terrorism are discussed.PMID: 12074489 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Agroterrorism, biological crimes, and biowarfare targeting animal agriculture. The clinical, pathologic, diagnostic, and epidemiologic features of some important animal diseases.

Wilson TM, Gregg DA, King DJ, Noah DL, Perkins LE, Swayne DE, Inskeep W 2nd.
Emergency Programs, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.In the past 100 years, to our knowledge there have been approximately 12 events involving the intentional introduction of microbiologic agents into livestock and animal populations worldwide, of which three were World War I events in the United States. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there has been no recent intentional introduction of microbiologic agents (viruses or bacteria) into livestock and animal populations in the United States. The criminal or terrorist use of chemicals against animals and agriculture products have been more common. With the political, economic, and military new world order, however, the United States must maintain a vigilant posture. The framework for this vigilance must be an intelligence system sensitive to the needs of agriculture and a first-class animal disease diagnostic surveillance and response system.PMID: 11572141 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Preparing for Biological and Chemical Attacks - Protecting Animals And Plants
The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

Animals and plants, especially those that human beings depend on for food, are also subject to attack. On the front line of this problem is the Department of Homeland Security's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). APHIS is a largely unknown agency but an important one. It monitors the nation's borders for foreign agricultural diseases and pests. It protects farm animals from disease and pests and provides a host of services to cattle ranchers, milk producers, turkey farmers, and other agrarian groups.According to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies report Chronology of CBW Attacks Targeting Crops and Livestock, 1915–2000 (October 2001), bioterror attacks on a nation's animals and agriculture are not uncommon in times of war. The German secret service deployed anthrax against horses and mules slated for use by the Allied powers in World War I. In Afghanistan in the 1980s, the Russian military used toxins against the horses of the rebel mujaheddin. England suspected that Nazi Germany had dropped Colorado potato beetles on rural areas during World War II to destroy potato crops; in 1950, communist East Germany accused the United States of a similar attack.

One in eight American jobs and 13% of the U.S. gross national product (the value of all the goods and services produced in the country) are dependent on agriculture. The country's economic stability depends on a safe and readily available food supply. U.S. crops and livestock could be tempting targets to terrorists, especially because of the perceived ease of attacking such targets. (See Table 5.3.) Livestock and plant pathogens could threaten U.S. agricultural productivity and cause economic damage. Such factors as the resilience of the agent used, the density of the targeted animal population, and the susceptibility of targeted plants and animals to disease determine the level of vulnerability. (See Table 5.4.)Potential threats to U.S. agricultural products and livestock come from a number of pathogens and agents. Animals could contract many types of disease, including anthrax, Q fever, brucellosis, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Venezuelan equine encephalitis, hog cholera, African swine fever, avian influenza, Newcastle disease, Rift Valley fever, rinderpest, and others. The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) is a 155-member organization that sets the animal health standards for international trade. They maintain two lists of diseases: List A includes diseases with the potential for very rapid spread across national borders and serious socio-economic or public health consequences. List B includes diseases that are considered dangerous within the individual country where an outbreak occurs. Table 5.5 shows the List A and many of the List B animal diseases. Many staple plants, such as corn, wheat, rice, and soybeans, are susceptible to disease. Soybean rust, for example, can be easily introduced and spreads quickly, which could cause U.S. soybean producers, processors, livestock producers (who feed soy products to their animals), and consumers to lose up to $8 billion annually, according to USDA estimates. Table 5.6 lists plant diseases of particular agriterrorism concern.Some of these plant and animal agents can be found outside U.S. borders, and many can be readily transported, inadvertently or intentionally, into the United States, some with low risk of detection. APHIS is the agency.

Massive DNA Testing-Experts: the only way to ID many victims
By Laurie Garrett | STAFF WRITER September 16, 2001

Saying there is little chance of finding any more intact bodies in the World Trade Center wreckage, officials are gearing up for the largest forensic DNA screening operation in history, outstripped only by the decade long Human Genome Project.The scale of the delicate, easily compromised laboratory work ahead is so enormous that the city has reached out to Celera Genomics Group, the world's largest genome company, which sequenced the entire human genome, and Applied Biosystems Group, the world's largest manufacturer of forensic laboratory equipment.I don't think we're going to find bodies anymore,molecular biologist Robert Shaler, director of the city's Forensic Biology Laboratory, told Newsday yesterday.We're simply not finding whole bodies anymore.Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, at a news briefing last night, said,I think we have to be honest with people,preparing the families for the possibility that their loved ones either may never be recovered or be found only as DNA-matched body pieces.Yesterday afternoon, the chief of Celera was in a planning meeting at the company's headquarters in Rockville, Md., discussing the Trade Center situation.

Nothing has been finalized yet. But we're here in planning sessions trying to prepare right now,chief executive Craig Vetner said in a telephone interview. This is a relatively sensitive area. We're trying to help quietly and stay behind the scenes.

Peter Bakersky, who is heading up all Federal Emergency Management Administration operations in New York, confirmed the lack of whole, or even partial, bodies in the World Trade Center debris. Bakersky, who has responded to nearly every major disaster in the country since 1988, has the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah federal building in Oklahoma City as a reference point.What they're looking at, those items that are being recovered now, are pieces,Bakersky said.Look, this is a 110-story building. We're still at the top levels. You probably are only going to find body parts, or nothing. Because of fire, of blast. When you're talking about temperatures of 2,700 degrees, what do you have? You have a cremation effect.As you get farther down, to the lower floors, you probably will find intact bodies. In Oklahoma City, the farther down we went, you found more intact bodies,he said. Of course, when you say intact it still doesn't mean fully intact. You still have crushed bodies that may be dismembered.It will be a long time before excavators can reach that level. Both Bakersky and Shaler said digging and sifting through the mountains of debris will last until year's end. DNA analysis probably will continue into 2002, they said.The clock is ticking, Shaler said, and not only for thousands of families desperate to know whether their loved ones were killed in the terrorist attack. With each day, the DNA of the victims degrades, as does that of 10 hijackers aboard the Boeing 767s that crashed into the two towers.

All evidence must be properly tagged and processed, adhering to strict techniques that must be able to stand up in federal court. Any body or tissue samples must be identified using the FBI's Combined DNA Indexing System, Shaler said. The chain of control of that DNA evidence must be scrupulously logged and maintained lest anyone in a legal proceeding question its validity.Some of the 600 samples that have come into the lab so far have contained enough reliable DNA to allow standard genetic analysis, which requires examination of 13 specific loci in human chromosomes in order to create a legal DNA fingerprint.But once the DNA begins to degrade, you lose these [loci],Shaler said. As the quality of samples worsens, either because of their deterioration over time or their original damaged condition, the scientists will have to use more exotic genetic typing methods.Another strategy is to look at mitochondrial DNA,Shaler said, referring to tiny packages of maternally inherited genetic material found separate from the chromosomes.So our strategy is to first look for genomic DNA, and then go for mitochondrial. And if the DNA is really degraded, we may have to go down to the level of tetra-repeats or single nucleotide polymorphisms.

In other words, the lab is preparing to perform types of DNA analysis that would challenge even a top research laboratory. To perform this sort of very specific, difficult analysis on a massive scale, Shaler said, the medical examiner's office is reaching out to Celera, Applied Biosystems Group in Foster City, Calif., and the DNA company Myriad Genetics Inc. of Salt Lake City.The volume we're talking about is astronomical,Shaler said.If you figure 5,000 people were in there, that's probably about 500,000 pieces and degraded samples we're going to get. Extracting the samples takes about two hours. Finding the DNA takes about three hours. Amplifying the DNA takes another three hours. And STR [short tandem repeat] DNA analysis takes two hours.
That makes for lab time of 10 hours per sample. With a half-million samples, that necessitates 5 million hours of labor and processing.At the news briefing, the city asked that families provide DNA samples immediately and announced that Laboratory Corporation of America, also known as LabCorp, with facilities nationwide, will accept samples from relatives of the missing.DNA evidence offers us the best opportunity to help families find their loved ones, Giuliani said in the statement. I strongly urge everyone who is missing a relative to participate in this process.

Shaler said the lab has plenty of skilled personnel, although laboratories all over the world have offered their assistance. The work is so upsetting - even gruesome - that the scientists are working only three-hour rotations.At ground zero, teams are looking for something which might have discoloration on it, Shaler said. It's not the same as a plane crash, where you have body parts strewn all over but things are recognizable as an arm or leg. Here, it's almost like an archaeological dig. And it's going to take time. A lot of time.This week's rain and cooler temperatures pushed FEMA's planners to think about winter conditions at the site. From Shaler's point of view, an early winter would be a good thing, as DNA samples generally remain intact longer in very cold conditions. Those same conditions, however, will make excavation even tougher, Bakersky said.


Op-Ed The Microbes of Mayhem Author: Laurie A. Garrett, Senior Fellow for Global Health May 10, 2004 Los Angeles Times

As the horrors of Sudan's ethnic conflict mount, opportunities for pathogenic microbes -- germs that could threaten people all over the world -- rise in tandem. War and disease are often a matched set in Africa, with terrifying results: If the fighting doesn't kill you, disease very well could. And without outside help to stop the cycle, the devastating results will only spread. In the Darfur region of western Sudan, an estimated 1 million ethnic-African Sudanese are refugees, the targets of government troops and horseback janjaweed militia -- ethnic Arabs -- who are torching and raping their way across hundreds of miles of poor farmland. It is almost impossible to overstate how remote this region is. Permission to legally visit the area is rarely granted by the Sudanese government. So scientists know very little about the area's plants and animals, much less its microbes. But what they can surmise is frightening.

Darfur is just 500 miles north of N'zara, where scientists believe the often lethal West Nile virus (which has now spread to nearly every state in the United States) resides. In 1976, N'zara also was the site of a major outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus. And across Sudan's southern border, Uganda is believed to be ground zero for the global AIDS epidemic. The circumstances of West Nile's spread remain a mystery, but the Ebola outbreak and the AIDS epidemic owe a great deal to the treacherous mixing of war, refugees and microbes. In 1976, an international team of scientists was in Yambuku, Zaire, doing battle with the world's first known epidemic of Ebola, a virus that causes uncontrollable bleeding. Ebola was rare, to say the least, so the scientists were stunned to hear rumors of another outbreak in N'zara. American disease detective Dr. Joe McCormick drove a Land Rover across more than 400 miles of unmarked terrain to confirm the outbreak. To this day, however, scientists have no idea exactly how Ebola emerged in N'zara, or whether the virus normally inhabits the area. But they do know that ethnic warfare was underway in the region. Most likely, infected animals -- bats, perhaps -- had taken up residence inside buildings in the area, probably as a result of human encroachment into the animals' normal habitat and changes in local weather patterns. It is believed that starving local residents hunted and ate infected animals, and once humans were infected, Ebola spread swiftly, thanks to the dire conditions in the region's war-torn hospitals and clinics, where needles were reused and sterile techniques were virtually unheard of. As for HIV, it also can be traced to the 1970s and another ethnic-cleansing campaign in the same region of Africa. Ugandan strongman Idi Amin set his soldiers against tribes in the Rakai district, with rape as a primary weapon. When the conflict spilled over into Tanzania, so did the rape, and when Tanzania's army repulsed Amin's forces, it carried out its own campaign of rape in turn. As it happened, however, another form of revenge spread along with the rape: HIV.

The genetic history of HIV shows that the virus made its first leap to our species from a primate -- probably a chimpanzee -- some seven decades ago. But in traditional village settings across Africa, the virus did not readily spread, and less than 1% of any society is thought to have been infected before the mid-1970s. It took a catastrophic event, like Amin's brutal campaign, to amplify the rare virus into a pandemic. Today, as then, a chief horror of the Darfur campaign is the militias' raping of women and girls. They brand their victims' foreheads so that all will know that the women and their potential offspring are tainted. Nobody knows how prevalent HIV is in the Darfur region (Khartoum has never allowed surveys of the area). In the Muslim north, surveys of pregnant women four years ago revealed that 3% of them were HIV-positive; a N'zara-area survey found infection rates twice as high. It isn't unreasonable to suspect that the current Darfur ethnic cleansing campaign is spreading the disease, not only among the people of Darfur and their janjaweed rapists but also among refugees in camps in neighboring Chad. It is equally reasonable to posit that some other previously obscure sexually transmitted disease could be amplified to epidemic proportions via the bodies of the women of Darfur.
And there is yet another chapter in the region's disease history that has a bearing on what's happening in Darfur. Ten years ago, the world stood by as hundreds of thousands were murdered in Rwanda and thousands more died in the refugee camps. Initially, overwhelmed local medical workers believed that the disease causing many of the deaths was cholera. But it wasn't chiefly cholera that ravaged the refugee camps; it was shigella, bacteria that cause dysentery. Amid the ongoing violence and the chaos of the camps, black market antibiotics were taken indiscriminately. Instead of curing the bacteria, the uncontrolled use of antibiotics created a brand new fully drug-resistant strain that still plagues Africa. Surely it is in our collective interest, in light of this sorry history, to pay heed to those who implore us to save Darfur, to stop the rape, to resettle the refugees, to end the chaos that breeds disease. Even if we cannot find Sudan on a map or have no room left in our hearts to bear witness to another war, we surely understand that deadly microbes are our problem, as well as theirs. Laurie Garrett, a former Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter for Newsday, is now senior fellow for global health at the Council on Foreign Relations.

Homeland Security Planning Scenarios Scenario 14: Biological Attack – Foreign Animal Disease (Foot & Mouth Disease)Summary Casualties None ,Infrastructure Damage Huge loss of livestock ,Evacuations/Displaced Persons None Contamination None ,Economic Impact Hundreds of millions of dollars ,Potential for Multiple Events Yes ,Recovery Timeline Months

Although this scenario depicts an intentional attack on the U.S. livestock industry, the accidental importation of certain diseases is also a hazard.

Scenario Overview:
General Description – Foot and mouth disease is an acute infectious viral disease that causes blisters, fever, and lameness in cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle and swine. Pregnant animals often abort and dairy cattle may dry up. It spreads rapidly among such animals and can be fatal in young animals. The disease is not considered a human threat. In this scenario, members of the Universal Adversary (UA) enter the United States to survey large operations in the livestock industries. The UA targets several locations for a coordinated bioterrorism attack on the agricultural industry. Approximately two months later, UA teams enter the United States and infect farm animals at specific locations. The U.S. livestock transportation system is highly efficient and movements are rapid and frequent. Although the initial event will be localized at transportation facilities in several states, as the biological agent matures and the livestock are transported, the geographical area will widen to include surrounding states where the livestock are delivered. Timeline/Event Dynamics – The foreign animal disease (FAD) is initially detected using clinical signs and veterinary medical detection and identification. Over a period of approximately 2 weeks, federal, state, and local animal health professionals put in place surveillance, detection, containment, remediation, and disposal protocols. This is followed by surveillance, detection, containment, remediation, and disposal protocols continue until testing confirms the FAD is eradicated. Secondary Hazards/Events – Environmental issues regarding contaminated land and equipment must be seriously considered and addressed. Disposal of carcasses of culled animals must be done in an environmentally conscious and expeditious manner.

Key Implications:
There are no human fatalities or injuries. However, massive numbers of affected livestock are disposed of because the United States has a national policy not to vaccinate. Property damage will be limited to land mass required for disposal of euthanized livestock (burial). All transportation into and out of the affected areas will be severely limited to prevent further dispersion of the FAD to unaffected areas. Both commercial and private/personal travel will be limited. The extent of economic impact will depend on the ability to limit the geographical spread of the outbreak. A great economic impact will be realized in many sectors of the economy, including but not limited to agriculture. Long-term issues will be centered mostly on foreign trade. Economic factors will include the value of the affected livestock that must be disposed of; the cost of federal, state, and local governments to identify, contain, and eradicate the FAD; the cost of disposal and remediation; the loss of revenue suffered by the commercial transportation industry; the loss of revenue suffered by the retail industry due to public perception that the FAD poses a disease risk; the loss of export markets immediately upon confirmation that the FAD exists; and the cost to renew the livestock lost to euthanasia. The inevitable development and utilization of new technologies to include rapid detection, improved traditional vaccines/advanced molecular vaccines, and new therapeutics (including antiviral agents and other novel biomedical approaches) will lead to a physiological hardening of the U.S. farm animal population against FADs, thereby making them unattractive targets of bioterrorism. Although psychological impacts will be realized, human health issues will not be a consideration if a farm animal disease-causing agent is used.

Mission Areas Activated:
Prevention/Deterrence/Protection – The full force of the agricultural disease protection system will be challenged in order to prevent or detect further attacks.

Emergency Assessment/Diagnosis – Investigations using epidemiological trace-back, microbial forensics, and other approaches will be utilized to determine the source of the agent and identity of the perpetrators. Emergency Management/Response – If the scope of the outbreak grows, the ability to effectively conduct intrastate and interstate command and control activities, as well as the ability to successfully allocate resources, will be a challenge. States would have a need for containment, federal funding and personnel, and the use and availability of the National Guard. Federal mobilization based on the National Response Plan. Evoking the Stafford Act would be considered.

Incident/Hazard Mitigation – The halt of national movement of susceptible animals may be necessary. Equitable indemnification and when to begin reconstitution of the herds leading to economic recovery will be a major consideration. Public Protection – Information must be provided in order to combat the public’s fear and the spread of misinformation about the disease. Victim Care – It will be necessary to euthanize and dispose of infected and exposed animals. Investigation/Apprehension – Investigation and apprehension will entail a criminal investigation, involving law enforcement and agricultural experts. Recovery/Remediation – Ranches, feedlots, transportation modes, and other locations will require decontamination and cleanup. Cleaning and disinfecting are tools used to impede the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. All premises should be cleaned and disinfected under supervision of a regulatory animal health employee.


3 A fire goeth before him, and burneth up his enemies round about.

18 And another angel came out from the altar, which had power over fire; and cried with a loud cry to him that had the sharp sickle, saying, Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth; for her grapes are fully ripe.
19 And the angel thrust in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great winepress of the wrath of God.
20 And the winepress was trodden without the city,(JERUSALEM) and blood came out of the winepress, even unto the horse bridles, by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs.(200 MILES) (THE SIZE OF ISRAEL)

ISAIAH 66:15-18
15 For, behold, the LORD will come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire.
16 For by fire and by his sword will the LORD plead with all flesh: and the slain of the LORD shall be many.
17 They that sanctify themselves, and purify themselves in the gardens behind one tree in the midst, eating swine's flesh, and the abomination, and the mouse, shall be consumed together, saith the LORD.
18 For I know their works and their thoughts: it shall come, that I will gather all nations and tongues; and they shall come, and see my glory.

ISAIAH 26:21
21 For, behold, the LORD cometh out of his place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity: the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain.(WW3,1/2 earths population die).

ISAIAH 13:6-13 KJV
6 Howl ye; for the day of the LORD is at hand; it shall come as a destruction from the Almighty.
7 Therefore shall all hands be faint, and every man's heart shall melt:(FROM FRIGHT)
8 And they shall be afraid: pangs and sorrows shall take hold of them; they shall be in pain as a woman that travaileth: they shall be amazed one at another; their faces shall be as flames.
9 Behold, the day of the LORD cometh, cruel both with wrath and fierce anger, to lay the land desolate: and he shall destroy the sinners thereof out of it.
10 For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine.
11 And I will punish the world for their evil, and the wicked for their iniquity; and I will cause the arrogancy of the proud to cease, and will lay low the haughtiness of the terrible.
12 I will make a man more precious than fine gold; even a man than the golden wedge of Ophir.
13 Therefore I will shake the heavens, and the earth shall remove out of her place, in the wrath of the LORD of hosts, and in the day of his fierce anger.

ISAIAH 24:17-23 KJV
17 Fear, and the pit, and the snare, are upon thee, O inhabitant of the earth.
18 And it shall come to pass, that he who fleeth from the noise of the fear shall fall into the pit; and he that cometh up out of the midst of the pit shall be taken in the snare: for the windows from on high are open, and the foundations of the earth do shake.
19 The earth is utterly broken down, the earth is clean dissolved, the earth is moved exceedingly.
20 The earth shall reel to and fro like a drunkard, and shall be removed like a cottage; and the transgression thereof shall be heavy upon it; and it shall fall, and not rise again.
21 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the LORD shall punish the host of the high ones that are on high, and the kings of the earth upon the earth.
22 And they shall be gathered together, as prisoners are gathered in the pit, and shall be shut up in the prison, and after many days shall they be visited.
23 Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed, when the LORD of hosts shall reign in mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before his ancients gloriously.

1 This know also, that in the last days perilous (DANGEROUS) times shall come.

JOEL 2:3,30
3 A fire devoureth before them; and behind them a flame burneth: the land is as the garden of Eden before them, and behind them a desolate wilderness; yea, and nothing shall escape them.
30 And I will shew wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke.

ZECHARIAH 14:12-13
12 And this shall be the plague wherewith the LORD will smite all the people that have fought against Jerusalem; Their flesh shall consume away while they stand upon their feet, and their eyes shall consume away in their holes, and their tongue shall consume away in their mouth.
13 And it shall come to pass in that day, that a great tumult from the LORD shall be among them; and they shall lay hold every one on the hand of his neighbour, and his hand shall rise up against the hand of his neighbour.

47 And say to the forest of the south, Hear the word of the LORD; Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I will kindle a fire in thee, and it shall devour every green tree in thee, and every dry tree: the flaming flame shall not be quenched, and all faces from the south to the north shall be burned therein.

18 Neither their silver nor their gold shall be able to deliver them in the day of the LORD'S wrath; but the whole land shall be devoured by the fire of his jealousy: for he shall make even a speedy riddance of all them that dwell in the land.

1 For, behold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble: and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the LORD of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch.

7 The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up.

18 By these three was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths.




This very tiny summary of Uranium is for everybody who wants to know more about yellow-cake, centrifuges, atomic bombs, plutonium and all that. As our National debate continues on the bush.yellowcake lies, a CHEMIST has stepped up to present an overview. So here it is, with very fascinating links for all you science buffs, who want to explore further.Uranium (Element #92, abbreviated U, named after the Planet Uranus)Plutonium (Element #94, abbreviated Pu, named after the Planet Pluto)

When highly purified into suitable chemical forms, BOTH these elements (U and Pu) can be used to generate power in a Nuclear Power Plant. In a different chemical form, BOTH these elements can be used to make NUCLEAR BOMBS. Both elements are radioactive, meaning that they emit dangerous radiation for thousands of years (radiation is high energy particles that disrupt molecular structures, causing your body chemistry to malfunction in many ways, often forming cancers)

Uranium exists in the earth, and can be located and mined by geologists.

Plutonium is a human-made element, that only exists where scientists created it. The first Plutonium was created by the USA for making nuclear bombs in WWII. (That let the genie out of the bottle, creating an element! We have poisoned ourselves with major environmental damage, from an insidious world-class toxicant. For over 50 years now, discussions continue over what to do with Pu, where to store it, and how to clean up this mess).

There are essentially two BIG steps to making a nuclear bomb:

1. Extract Uranium from the ground, process and extract it to make yellowcake

2. Chemically separate the Uranium isotopes, and purify those chemicals. Once purified, U can then be used by itself for a nuclear bomb, as the Hiroshima bomb) or take it further, in a nuclear reaction to create Plutonium (as the Nagasaki bomb). Either U or Pu can also be used to generate power in nuclear power plants.These are VERY COMPLEX, dangerous and expensive steps. The closer that you get to the final purified U or Pu, the more valuable the chemical compounds become, and the more dangerous. The more steps are completed, the easier to make a nuclear bomb from it. Yellowcake is light-years away from a final nuclear bomb, but the possession of yellowcake eliminates ONE difficult step.

Here'e a good flowchart showing the process (for power production nuclear materials, but the process is essentially the same to create nuclear materials for ATOMIC BOMBS, which are now called Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD).

Uranium is removed from the earth in mining operations. After removing it from the earth, the ore must be processed using chemicals to extract the actual Uranium. Here is info on mining Uranium, the production process: from blasting to shipping…

A huge amount of rock must be processed to get a tiny bit of Uranium, which is then called yellowcake, because it's a yellow compressed powder. The mining leaves a huge environmental mess, as shown here.Geologists call these Uranium chemical compounds: Minerals, and have geological names, while chemists have a very organized naming system that allows you to draw the chemical structure and predict the chemical reactions. Here's a list (with some pictures) of different chemical forms of Uranium, with the geological names, and the chemical formulas…

There are TWO kinds of reactions that Uranium undergoes

1. Chemical reactions with other compounds, such as sulfur, oxygen, fluorine, and nitrogen. If you hit element 92, you can explore all the chemical forms of Uranium, and many crystal structures, Uranium - sulfides, oxides, fluorides and more…(on the left side), and the colors of each chemical compound.
http://www.webelements.com /

2. Nuclear Reactions. Physicists change the number of neutrons in the center of the atom, and create NEW elements. For Uranium (Atomic Number 92), the physicist adds two neutrons to create Plutonium (Atomic Number 94).

Before the physicists can create Plutonium, or use Uranium for a nuclear bomb, it must be purified by a very complex, environmentally damaging series of chemical extractions. The manufacturing plants for this process are VERY large, and in the USA, include the Hanford Plant in Washington, the Rocky Flats plant in Denver, Oak Ridge in Tennessee, the Pantex Plant in the Pan Handle of Texas, and more….with a variety of other manufacturing plant making components like electrical and explosives. These plants are not mobile and cannot be hidden.Two examples are shown: 1) WMD plant, and 2) Nuclear Power plant.

1. An example of just ONE plant is shown here (the actual enrichment was done at Hanford and Oakridge, other HUGE Nuclear Weapons Manufacturing Facilities. Rocky Flats only did the clean-up of the Nuclear Materials that were sent from Hanford)

WMD Plant: Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons plant

Read more about the chemical separation of Uranium isotopes, and the creation of Plutonium:http://www.uic.com.au/nip50.htm

2. In these links, you can see a second type of Uranium isotope use, that of creating power. Centrifuges similar to these are used to separate U for Atomic BOMBS. Multiple banks of high tech centrifuges are necessary, one centrifuge will NOT do it. Here's some pictures showing how Uranium enrichment works. These are very challenging chemical reactions, involving HOT Hydrofluoric Acid ( HF - a chemical that eats through glass, plastics, steel and more…HF also eats through humans, damaging nerves, so that the person will not feel the burning and can not know of the damage as it progresses…HF is a very dangerous chemical to work with.)

The large Tricastin enrichment plant in France (beyond cooling towers)
The four nuclear reactors in the foreground provide over 3000 MWe power for it.A bank of centrifuges at a Urenco plant.Here is a site that covers the complex history of Uranium and Plutonium in bombs..http://www.atomicarchive.com /

After chemical purification in these HUGE manufacturing facilities, nuclear reactions are used to create Plutonium. For Uranium (Atomic Number 92), the physicist adds two neutrons to create Plutonium (Atomic Number 94). This step is done with a NUCLEAR REACTOR. The link below (U of Missouri -Rolla), explains the processes that go on in the nuclear reactor to create Plutonium ,here's pics of the interior of the Nuclear Reactor at the U of Missouri - Rolla. http://web.umr.edu/~reactor /

Plutonium manufacture and fabrication
http://nuketesting.enviroweb.org/hew/Library/Plutonium /

Pu and U are always emitting radiation continuously for thousands of years.
These emissions are primarily dangerous alpha, beta, and gamma rays that damage cells, quickly, causing radiation burns/poisoning, and long-term, causing cancers.

here's another Periodic Chart of the Elements with links on bottom to explain everything (from the chemists at Los Alamos Nuclear Laboratories)

if you like pretty green-yellow glass, here is a link to the Uranium Glass Gallery where you can learn more about exotic collector glass made with radioactive Uranium. Although some people won't mind drinking their wine out of a radioactive glass, others do object to being radioactively poisoned as they drink. Beautiful glasses, though. http://www.parkcity.ne.jp/~ken-toma /

In recent news stories, Uranium and Plutonium have been called radionuclides, nuclear materials and radioactive isotopes and more. All of these names are correct, but emphasize different properties of the U and Pu. Because these atoms are so BIG and heavy (atoms are smallest at the top of the Periodic Chart and biggest at the bottom), they are also called heavy metals. Here is little background on The Atom, so you can better understand the terminology and the reactions:

1. The nucleus (the center) of an atom is composed of positively-charged particles called protons and neutral particles called neutrons.
2. The atomic number is the number of protons found in the nucleus. For example: Uranium is Atomic Number 92, which means that there are 92 protons in the nucleus (92 - positively charged particles in the center of the atom).
Plutonium is Atomic Number 94, which means that there are 94 protons in the nucleus.
3. Electrons are negatively charged particles that circulate continuously around the center of the atom, like the planets circulating around the sun. Chemical reactions often use the outermost electrons to join elements to each other.
4. Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons (positive-charged particles), and that gives the isotopes the SAME Atomic Number. But, the isotopes have different numbers of neutrons (neutral particles). Uranium has 14 isotopes, all are radioactive. The isotopes are commonly written as U-235 (meaning that there are 235 neutrons in that isotope) or U-238 (meaning that there are 238 neutrons in that isotope). Both U and Pu are very chemically reactive. As a metal, these elements chemically react on contact with air, which is called pyrophoric. This property has caused many fires and explosions when handling the purified metal. Even in other chemical forms, the continuous emission of radioactivity eats through almost all materials: glass, steel, plastics. U and Pu are dangerous, both for their chemical and nuclear properties. Pu is so chemically reactive, it reacts with virtually every non-metal in the Periodic Table of the Elements, except the Nobel Gases. To conduct any of the nuclear reactions, one must first clean-up (purify) the chemical compounds. The purification processes are very complex, dangerous, and toxic.

nuclear fission from the chemists…


Links to this post:

Create a Link

<< Home

This page is powered by Blogger. Isn't yours?