Saturday, April 18, 2009
WELL TRUE CHRISTIANS KNOW THAT ITS ONLY THE BLOOD OF JESUS THAT TAKES AWAY OUR SINS AND WE CAN NOT SAVE OURSELVES FROM HELL.THANK GOD(JESUS)THE KING OF ISRAEL AND THE WORLD THAT HIS WORD WILL PREVAIL AND SATAN AND HIS FOLLOWERS WILL BE THE ONES THAT ARE CAST INTO AND BURN IN THE LAKE OF FIRE FOREVER FOR BELIEVING LIES INSTEAD OF TRUTH THAT JESUS IS THE ONLY WAY TO SALVATION,NO OTHER.
WE CAN SEE ALL THE BEGGININGS OF GODS PROPHECIES BEING FULFILLED IN QUICK SUCCESSION NOW SO JESUS WILL ANYTIME NOW BE COMING IN THE CLOUDS TO TAKE THE TRUE CHRISTIANS WITH HIM TO HEAVEN FOR THE 7 YEAR TRIBULATION OF 21 JUDGEMENTS THAT CULMINATE IN WW3 AND KILL 4 BILLION PEOPLE.OR 1/2 EARHS POPULATION).THEN WE WILL SEE WHILE THE JUDGEMENTS ARE HITTING THE EARTH IF THESE GODLESS STILL BELIEVE SATANS LIES THAT WE ARE GODS AND THERE IS NO GOD WE HAVE TO GIVE ACCOUNT OF OUR LIVES TO.
WE KNOW THE BIBLE SAYS MILLIONS UPON MILLIONS WILL CHANGE WHILE THE JUDGEMENTS ARE HITTING THE EARTH.SATANS LIES WILL BE EXPOSED BY GODS POWER AND MULTITUDES WILL BE SAVED BY THE PREACHING OF ELIJAH,MOSES AND THE 144,000 JEWISH EVANGELISTS AS WELL AS ALL THE OTHER CHRISTIANS THAT ARE CONVERTED DURING THIS HELL ON EARTH PERIOD.THE BIGGEST DIFFERENCE FROM NOW AND THEN IS TODAY WE ARE NOT AS PERSECUTED AS THE CONVERTED DURING THE 7 YR TRIBULATION PERIOD.DURING THIS PERIOD OF HELL ON EARTH CONVERTED CHRISTIANS WILL BE BEHEADED FOR THEIR FAITH.SO MULTITUDES WILL BE BEHEADED FOR BELIEVING IN JESUS' SALVATION AND THAT JESUS IS THE ONLY WAY TO SALVATION.YOU CHOOSE NOW TO ACCEPT CHRIST IN YOUR HEART BECAUSE THE SECOND YOU DIE YOUR IN HELL.YOU CAN ONLY CHOOSE SALVATION WHILE YOUR HERE ON EARTH.YOU CHOOSE WERE YOU WANT TO SPEND ETERNITY (THATS FOREVER)WITH JESUS HERE ON EARTH AFTER THE 7 YEAR TRIBULATION PERIOD OR YOU CHOOSE SATAN AND HIS LIES AND SPEND ETERITY (THAT FOREVER)BURNING IN THE LAKE OF FIRE MADE FOR SATAN AND HIS ANGELS AND FOLLOWERS.YOOOOOOU CHOOOOOOOOSSSSSEEE.CHOOSE KING JESUS THE LAMB AND LIGHT AND TRUTH.
JOHN LOEFFLERS OTHER SHOWS IN THIS SERIES.
The world is passing through profound paradigm shifts rights now so we're planning to hyperfocus on just a couple of key items this weekend.First John produces an extended boralogue on the new emerging global economic system and a vocabulary emerging from the G20 summit, including transnationalism and responsible sovereignty. What does it all mean? One of those G20 phrases is -- surprise surprise -- the time-tried new world order.So does this mean all our politicians are now conspiracy theorists? Perhaps an examination of the 100-year history of that expression would be in order. We'll run clips from a Steel on Steel show from 14 years ago.Then historian Dr. Dennis Cuddy, author of The New World Order and the Road to Socialism,returns to check on what the globalists are cooking up in the midst of the universal economic crisis.
LOOKING BACKWARDS AT THE FUTURE
Once in a while it's important to look back to examine how well we saw the future from the past. Former Congressman Tom Tancredo of Colorado was a frequent Steel on Steel guest long before he became a controversial congressional figure regarding border security. Tom returns to the show to discuss everything from politics to education to how Americans see themselves.Quite a few bills are roaring through congress right now, which will radically change economic life, but they're receiving scant attention. One of those is HR699, which will virtually shut down mining in this country overnight if passed. Dave Morgan from the Silver Investor Newsletter (www.silver-investor.com) and Bob Hopper, President of the Bunker Hill Silver Mine in Idaho, join us.In the light of major paradigm shifts underway, we'll continue a thread begun a few weeks ago. Since government social programs are virtually bankrupt, churches need to anticipate now how they will handle the needs of elderly members in their congregations. Julie Garron is a creative woman, who sees the train wreck coming, and is already underway toward achieving that goal.John's boralogue addresses why jettisoning or ignoring laws in the name of helping the people in a crisis is a bad idea. John cites examples from the French Revolution, the Bolshevik Revolution and Nazi Germany to show why that only leads to serious mischief.
Revolutionary Change the Alinsky Way
People seem confused by many of President Obama's actions. However, if they take time to examine the Alinsky method of community change, things would become much clearer. So we'll do that for the first part of the program as Brannon Howse (www.christianworldviewnetwork.com) tells us who Saul Alinksy was, what he stood for and the revolutionary (sic) method of social change he designed.Then John updates listeners on the death of the American dollar as the world gravitates toward a global currency. This is followed by resuming the Middle East thread with a review of former President Jimmy Carter's new book to see what impact this line of thought will have on efforts to restart a peace process. Dexter van Zile from Camera (www.camera.org) joins the show.John's boralogue starts a new thread on the emerging global religious paradigm, which will have compromise as a core value.
Plumbing the Depths
Happy spring in the northern hemisphere. Happy fall in the southern hemisphere.
People seem to be confused about efforts to restart the economy. Much of government's action seems contradictory or self-defeating. The show boots with an analysis of three levels at which government now functions in the midst of the economic maelstrom.
Level three leads us into first guest John Bolton, former Ambassador to the United Nations during the Bush administration, who warns of an emerging war on sovereignty, where transnationalists use the global crisis to create supra-national structures that will transfer sovereignty to them. Notable among these is the call for a new global currency.Then our Middle East thread reopens to continue a strategic picture of the next showdown; who the players are and how it affects us, particularly in the area of energy. Professor Clare Lopez from the from the Centre for Counterintelligence and Security Studies (www.intelligencesummit.org) guests.John concludes the show with a report on the push toward a global currency.
The Middle East Chessboard
As the United States focuses on its economic problems, the Middle East chessboard slides toward an increasingly inevitable nuclear showdown between Israel and Iran. Is anyone watching? John's boralogue sizes up the geopolitics under way in that part of the world. Then Jonathan Schanzer (www.jewishpoliycenter.org) joins the show. Part of the conversation concentrates on what's at stake for the world energy markets.
Congress is doing its best to kill the economy totally. A horrible bill is under way, which would virtually shut down mining in the country. We'll hit that one next week. Meanwhile this week, a massive lands bill (S. 22) failed the old fashioned frontal assault; an effort to force passage under special rules with virtually no debate. It's a massive compendium of more than 170 smaller bills. John picks one section having serious unintended consequences for campers and national park users. You could be thrown in jail for five years just for picking up a rock in a national park.
Conservatives are saying President Obama is a socialist. He says not. Who better to decide than the revolutionary Marxist Saul Alinksy, author of Rules for Radicals? Barack Obama used to train people in the Alinsky method, so we read parts of the play book.
04/18/2009 General Systems Theory and You
The last few weeks we've pursued a path through Saul Alinksy's philosophy, the new emerging global paradigm and the history of trasnationalism. Today we'll tie those threads together in a common philosophy linking all three branches -- religious, economic and political -- of global society. It's called General Systems Theory. Most people are unaware of it but it is the driving force of your future. Mitch Wright guests.John's extended boralogue reviews this week's tea party events in the light of the right to freedom of speech and what this means for the media wars which have erupted in this country.
JOHN LOEFFLER ON SYSTEM THEORY
Systems theory APR 18,09
Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science and the study of the nature of complex systems in nature, society, and science. More specifically, it is a framework by which one can analyze and/or describe any group of objects that work in concert to produce some result. This could be a single organism, any organization or society, or any electro-mechanical or informational artifact.Systems theory first originated in biology in the 1920s out of the need to explain the interrelatedness of organisms in ecosystems. As a technical and general academic area of study it predominantly refers to the science of systems that resulted from Bertalanffy's General System Theory (GST), among others, in initiating what became a project of systems research and practice. It was Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson who developed interdisciplinary perspectives in systems theory (such as positive and negative feedback in the social sciences).
Margaret Mead was an influential figure in systems theory.Ideas from systems theory have grown with diversified areas, exemplified by the work of Béla H. Bánáthy, ecological systems with Howard T. Odum, Eugene Odum and Fritjof Capra, organizational theory and management with individuals such as Peter Senge, interdisciplinary study with areas likeHuman Resource Development from the work of Richard A. Swanson, and insights from educators such as Debora Hammond. As a transdisciplinary, interdisciplinary and multiperspectival domain, the area brings together principles and concepts from ontology, philosophy of science, physics, computer science,biology, and engineering as well as geography, sociology, political science, psychotherapy (within family systems therapy) and economics among others. Systems theory thus serves as a bridge for interdisciplinary dialogue between autonomous areas of study as well as within the area of systems science itself.In this respect, with the possibility of misinterpretations, Bertalanffy  believed a general theory of systems should be an important regulative device in science, to guard against superficial analogies that are useless in science and harmful in their practical consequences.Others remain closer to the direct systems concepts developed by the original theorists. For example, Ilya Prigogine, of the Center for Complex Quantum Systems at the University of Texas, Austin, has studied emergent properties, suggesting that they offer analogues for living systems. The theories of autopoiesis of Francisco Varela and Humberto Maturana are a further development in this field. Important names in contemporary systems science include Russell Ackoff, Béla H. Bánáthy, Anthony Stafford Beer, Peter Checkland, Robert L. Flood, Fritjof Capra, Michael C. Jackson, and Werner Ulrich, among others.With the modern foundations for a general theory of systems following the World Wars, Ervin Laszlo, in the preface for Bertalanffy's bookPerspectives on General System Theory, maintains that the translation of general system theory from German into English has wrought a certain amount of Havoc . The preface explains that the original concept of a general system theory was Allgemeine Systemtheorie (or Lehre), pointing out the fact that Theorie (or Lehre) just as Wissenschaft(translated Scholarship),has a much broader meaning in German than the closest English words theory and science . With these ideas referring to an organized body of science and any systematically presented set of concepts, whether they are empirical, axiomatic, or philosophical, Lehre is associated with theory and science in the etymology of general systems, but also does not translate from the German very well; teaching is the closest equivalent . While many of the root meanings for the idea of a general systems theory might have been lost in the translation and many[who?] were led to believe that the systems theorists had articulated nothing but a pseudoscience, systems theory became a nomenclature that early investigators used to describe the interdependence of relationships in organization by defining a new way of thinking about science and scientific paradigms.
A system from this frame of reference is composed of regularly interacting or interrelating groups of activities. For example, in noting the influence in organizational psychology as the field evolved from an individually oriented industrial psychology to a systems and developmentally oriented organizational psychology,it was recognized that organizations are complex social systems; reducing the parts from the whole reduces the overall effectiveness of organizations . This is at difference to conventional models that center on individuals, structures, departments and units separate in part from the whole instead of recognizing the interdependence between groups of individuals, structures and processes that enable an organization to function. Laszlo  explains that the new systems view of organized complexity went one step beyond the Newtonian view of organized simplicity in reducing the parts from the whole, or in understanding the whole without relation to the parts. The relationship between organizations and their environments became recognized as the foremost source of complexity and interdependence. In most cases the whole has properties that cannot be known from analysis of the constituent elements in isolation. Béla H. Bánáthy, who argued - along with the founders of the systems society - that the benefit of humankind is the purpose of science, has made significant and far-reaching contributions to the area of systems theory. For the Primer Group at ISSS, Bánáthy defines a perspective that iterates this view:The systems view is a world-view that is based on the discipline of SYSTEM INQUIRY. Central to systems inquiry is the concept of SYSTEM. In the most general sense, system means a configuration of parts connected and joined together by a web of relationships. The Primer group defines system as a family of relationships among the members acting as a whole. Bertalanffy defined system as elements in standing relationship.Similar ideas are found in learning theories that developed from the same fundamental concepts, emphasizing that understanding results from knowing concepts both in part and as a whole. In fact, Bertalanffy’s organismic psychology paralleled the learning theory of Jean Piaget Interdisciplinary perspectives are critical in breaking away from industrial age models and thinking where history is history and math is mathsegregated from the arts and music separate from the sciences and never the twain shall meet . The influential contemporary work of Peter Senge  provides detailed discussion of the commonplace critique of educational systems grounded in conventional assumptions about learning, including the problems with fragmented knowledge and lack of holistic learning from the machine-age thinking that became a model of school separated from daily life.It is in this way that systems theorists attempted to provide alternatives and an evolved ideation from orthodox theories with individuals such as Max Weber, Emile Durkheim in sociology and Frederick Winslow Taylor in scientific management, which were grounded in classical assumptions . The theorists sought holistic methods by developing systems concepts that could be integrated with different areas.
The contradiction of reductionism in conventional theory (which has as its subject a single part) is simply an example of changing assumptions. The emphasis with systems theory shifts from parts to the organization of parts, recognizing interactions of the parts are not static and constant but dynamic processes. Conventional closed systems were questioned with the development of open systemsperspectives. The shift was from absolute and universal authoritative principles and knowledge to relative and general conceptual andperceptual knowledge , still in the tradition of theorists that sought to provide means in organizing human life. Meaning, the history of ideasthat preceded were rethought not lost. Mechanistic thinking was particularly critiqued, especially the industrial-age mechanistic metaphor of the mind from interpretations of Newtonian mechanics by Enlightenment philosophers and later psychologists that laid the foundations of modern organizational theory and management by the late 19th century . Classical science had not been overthrown, but questions arose over core assumptions that historically influenced organized systems, within both social and technical sciences.
1820-1903 Herbert Spencer
1882-1950 Nicolai Hartmann
1848-1923 Vilfredo Pareto
1858-1917 Emile Durkheim
1922 Alexander Bogdanov publishes Tectology in Russian (German translation 1928, English 1980)
1929-1951 Robert Maynard Hutchins, University of Chicago
1946-1953 Macy conferences
1948 Norbert Wiener publishes Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine
1955 W. Ross Ashby publishes Introduction to Cybernetics
1956 Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Anatol Rapoport,Ralph W. Gerard, Kenneth Boulding establish Society for the Advancement of General Systems Theory.
1968 Ludwig von Bertalanffy publishes General System theory: Foundations, Development, Applications
1970-1980s Second-order cybernetics developed byHeinz von Foerster, Gregory Bateson, Humberto Maturana and others
1970s Catastrophe theory (René Thom, E.C. Zeeman) Dynamical systems in mathematics.
1980s Chaos theory David Ruelle, Edward Lorenz, Mitchell Feigenbaum, Steve Smale, James A. Yorke
1986 Context theory Anthony Wilden
1988 International Society for Systems Science
1990 Complex adaptive systems (CAS) John H. Holland, Murray Gell-Mann, Harold Morowitz, W. Brian Arthur
Whether considering the first systems of written communication with Phoeniciancuneiform to Mayan numerals, or the feats of engineering with the Egyptian pyramids, systems thinking in essence dates back to antiquity. Differentiated from Western rationalist traditions of philosophy, C. West Churchman often identified with the I Ching as a systems approach sharing a frame of reference similar topre-Socratic philosophy and Heraclitus . Bertalanffy traced systems concepts to the philosophy of G.W. von Leibniz and Nicholas of Cusa's Coincidentia Oppositorum. While modern systems are considerably more complicated, today's systems are embedded in history.
Systems theory as an area of study specifically developed following the World Wars from the work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Anatol Rapoport, Kenneth E. Boulding, William Ross Ashby, Margaret Mead, Gregory Bateson, C. West Churchman and others in the 1950s, specifically catalyzed by the Macy conferences. Cognizant of advances in science that questioned classical assumptions in the organizational sciences, Bertalanffy's idea to develop a theory of systems began as early as the interwar period, publishing An Outline for General Systems Theory in the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol 1, No. 2, by 1950. Where assumptions in Western science from Greek thought with Plato and Aristotle to Newton's Principia have historically influenced all areas from the hard to social sciences (see David Easton's seminal development of the political system as an analytical construct), the original theorists explored the implications of twentieth century advances in terms of systems.Subjects like complexity, self-organization, connectionism and adaptive systemshad already been studied in the 1940s and 1950s.In fields like cybernetics, researchers like Norbert Wiener, William Ross Ashby, John von Neumann andHeinz von Foerster examined complex systems using mathematics. John von Neumann discovered cellular automata and self-reproducing systems, again with only pencil and paper. Aleksandr Lyapunov and Jules Henri Poincaré worked on the foundations of chaos theory without any computer at all. At the same timeHoward T. Odum, the radiation ecologist, recognised that the study of general systems required a language that could depict energetics and kinetics at any system scale. Odum developed a general systems, or Universal language, based on the circuit language of electronics to fulfill this role, known as the Energy Systems Language. Between 1929-1951, Robert Maynard Hutchins at theUniversity of Chicago had undertaken efforts to encourage innovation and interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, aided by the Ford Foundation with the interdisciplinary Division of the Social Sciences established in 1931 (Hammond 2003: 5-9). Numerous scholars had been actively engaged in ideas before (Tectology of Alexander Bogdanov published in 1912-1917 is a remarkable example), but in 1937 Bertalanffy presented the general theory of systems for a conference at the University of Chicago.
The systems view was based on several fundamental ideas. First, all phenomena can be viewed as a web of relationships among elements, or a system. Second, all systems, whether electrical, biological, or social, have common patterns, behaviors, and properties that can be understood and used to develop greater insight into the behavior of complex phenomena and to move closer toward a unity of science. System philosophy, methodology and application are complementary to this science . By 1956, the Society for General Systems Research was established, renamed the International Society for Systems Science in 1988. The Cold War had its affects upon the research project for systems theory in ways that sorely disappointed many of the seminal theorists. Some began to recognize theories defined in association with systems theory had deviated from the initial General Systems Theory (GST) view (Hull 1970). The economist Kenneth Boulding, an early researcher in systems theory, had concerns over the manipulation of systems concepts. Boulding concluded from the effects of the Cold War that abuses of power always prove consequential and that systems theory might address such issues . Since the end of the Cold War, there has been a renewed interest in systems theory with efforts to strengthen an ethical view.
Developments in system theories
General systems research and systems inquiry Many early systems theorists aimed at finding a general systems theory that could explain all systems in all fields of science. The term goes back to Bertalanffy's book titled General System theory: Foundations, Development, Applications from 1968. von Bertalanffy's objective was to bring together under one heading the organismic science that he had observed in his work as a biologist. His desire was to use the word system to describe those principles which are common to systems in general. In GST, he writes:...there exist models, principles, and laws that apply to generalized systems or their subclasses, irrespective of their particular kind, the nature of their component elements, and the relationships or forces between them. It seems legitimate to ask for a theory, not of systems of a more or less special kind, but of universal principles applying to systems in general.Ervin Laszlo  in the preface of von Bertalanffy's book Perspectives on General System Theory.. Thus when von Bertalanffy spoke of Allgemeine Systemtheorie it was consistent with his view that he was proposing a new perspective, a new way of doing science. It was not directly consistent with an interpretation often put on general system theory, to wit, that it is a (scientific) theory of general systems.To criticize it as such is to shoot at straw men. Von Bertalanffy opened up something much broader and of much greater significance than a single theory (which, as we now know, can always be falsified and has usually an ephemeral existence): he created a new paradigm for the development of theories.
Ludwig von Bertalanffy outlines systems inquiry into three major domains: Philosophy, the Science, and Technology. In his work with the Primer Group, Béla H. Bánáthy generalized the domains into four integratable domains of systemic inquiry: Philosophy, the ontology, epistemology, and axiology of systems;Theory, a set of interrelated concepts and principles applying to all systems;Methodology, the set of models, strategies, methods, and tools that instrumentalize systems theory and philosophy; and Application, the application and interaction of the domains.
These operate in a recursive relationship, he explained. Integrating Philosophy and Theory as Knowledge, and Method and Application as action, Systems Inquiry then is knowledgeable action.
Main article: Cybernetics
Cybernetics is the study of feedback and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organisations. Its focus is how anything (digital, mechanical or biological) processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks. Originally, the term cybernetics derives from a Greek word that meant a helmsman.The terms systems theory and cybernetics have been widely used as synonyms. Some authors use the term cybernetic systems to denote a proper subset of the class of general systems, namely those systems that include feedback loops. However Gordon Pask's differences of eternal interacting actor loops (that produce finite products) makes general systems a proper subset of cybernetics. According to Jackson (2000), Bertalanffy promoted an embryonic form of general system theory (GST) as early as the 1920s and 1930s but it was not until the early 1950s it became more widely known in scientific circles.
Threads of cybernetics began in the late 1800s that led toward the publishing of seminal works (eg., Wiener's Cybernetics in 1948 and von Bertalanffy's General Systems Theory in 1968).Cybernetics arose more from engineering fields and GST from biology. If anything it appears that although the two probably mutually influenced each other, cybernetics had the greater influence. Bertalanffy (1969) specifically makes the point of distinguishing between the areas in noting the influence of cybernetics: Systems theory is frequently identified with cybernetics and control theory. This again is incorrect. Cybernetics as the theory of control mechanisms in technology and nature is founded on the concepts of information and feedback, but as part of a general theory of systems;then reiterates: the model is of wide application but should not be identified with systems theory in general, and that warning is necessary against its incautious expansion to fields for which its concepts are not made.(17-23). Jackson (2000) also claims Bertalanffy was informed by Alexander Bogdanov's three volume Tectology that was published in Russia between 1912 and 1917, and was translated into German in 1928. He also states it is clear to Gorelik (1975) that the conceptual part of general system theory (GST) had first been put in place by Bogdanov. The similar position is held by Mattessich (1978) and Capra (1996). Bertalanffy never even mentioned Bogdanov in his works, which Capra (1996) finds surprising.Cybernetics, catastrophe theory, chaos theory and complexity theory have the common goal to explain complex systems that consist of a large number of mutually interacting and interrelated parts in terms of those interactions. Cellular automata (CA), neural networks (NN), artificial intelligence (AI), and artificial life (ALife) are related fields, but they do not try to describe general (universal) complex (singular) systems. The best context to compare the different C-Theories about complex systems is historical, which emphasizes different tools and methodologies, from pure mathematics in the beginning to pure computer science now. Since the beginning of chaos theory when Edward Lorenz accidentally discovered a strange attractor with his computer, computers have become an indispensable source of information. One could not imagine the study of complex systems without the use of computers today.
Complex adaptive systems
Main article: Complex adaptive systems
Complex adaptive systems are special cases of complex systems. They are complex in that they are diverse and made up of multiple interconnected elements and adaptive in that they have the capacity to change and learn from experience. The term complex adaptive systems was coined at the interdisciplinary Santa Fe Institute (SFI), by John H. Holland, Murray Gell-Mann and others. However, the approach of the complex adaptive systems does not not take account in adoption of information which enables people to use it.CAS ideas and models are essentially evolutionary, and they take ground in the modern biological views on adaptation and evolution. Accordingly, the theory of complex adaptive systems bridges developments of the system theory with the ideas of 'generalized Darwinism', which suggests that Darwinian principles of evolution are capable to explain a range of complex material phenomena, from cosmic to social objects.
Applications of system theories
Living systems theory
Main article: Living systems theory
Living systems theory is an offshoot of Bertalanffy's general systems theory, created by James Grier Miller, which was intended to formalize the concept of life. According to Miller's original conception as spelled out in his magnum opus Living Systems, a living system must contain each of 20 critical subsystems, which are defined by their functions and visible in numerous systems, from simple cells to organisms, countries, and societies. In Living Systems Miller provides a detailed look at a number of systems in order of increasing size, and identifies his subsystems in each.James Grier Miller (1978) wrote a 1,102-page volume to present his living systems theory. He constructed a general theory of living systems by focusing on concrete systems—nonrandom accumulations of matter-energy in physical space-time organized into interacting, interrelated subsystems or components. Slightly revising the original model a dozen years later, he distinguished eight nested hierarchical levels in such complex structures. Each level is nested in the sense that each higher level contains the next lower level in a nested fashion.
Kurt Lewin attended the Macy conferencesand is commonly identified as the founder of the movement to study groups scientifically.Main article: Organizational studies
The systems framework is also fundamental to organizational theory as organizations are complex dynamic goal-oriented processes. One of the early thinkers in the field was Alexander Bogdanov, who developed his Tectology, a theory widely considered a precursor of Bertalanffy's GST, aiming to model and design human organizations (see Mattessich 1978, Capra 1996). Kurt Lewin was particularly influential in developing the systems perspective within organizational theory and coined the term systems of ideology, from his frustration with behavioral psychologies that became an obstacle to sustainable work in psychology . Jay Forrester with his work in dynamics and management alongside numerous theorists including Edgar Schein that followed in their tradition since the Civil Rights Era have also been influential.The systems to organizations relies heavily upon achieving negative entropy through openness and feedback. A systemic view on organizations is transdisciplinary and integrative. In other words, it transcends the perspectives of individual disciplines, integrating them on the basis of a common code, or more exactly, on the basis of the formal apparatus provided by systems theory. The systems approach gives primacy to the interrelationships, not to the elements of the system. It is from these dynamic interrelationships that new properties of the system emerge. In recent years, systems thinking has been developed to provide techniques for studying systems in holistic ways to supplement traditional reductionistic methods. In this more recent tradition, systems theory in organizational studies is considered by some as a humanistic extension of the natural sciences.
Software and computing
In the 1960s, systems theory was adopted by the post John Von Neumann computing and information technology field and, in fact, formed the basis of structured analysis and structured design (see also Larry Constantine, Tom DeMarco and Ed Yourdon). It was also the basis for earlysoftware engineering and computer-aided software engineering principles.By the 1970s, General Systems Theory (GST) was the fundamental underpinning of most commercial software design techniques, and by the 1980, W. Vaughn Frick and Albert F. Case, Jr. had used GST to design the missing link transformation from system analysis (defining what's needed in a system) to system design (what's actually implemented) using the Yourdon/DeMarco notation. These principles were incorporated into computer-aided software engineering tools delivered by Nastec Corporation, Transform Logic, Inc., KnowledgeWare (see Fran Tarkentonand James Martin), Texas Instruments, Arthur Andersen and ultimately IBM Corporation.
Sociology and Sociocybernetics
Main article: Sociology
Systems theory has also been developed within sociology. An important figure in the sociological systems perspective as developed from GST is Walter Buckley (who from Bertalanffy's theory). Niklas Luhmann (see Luhmann 1994) is also predominant in the literatures for sociology and systems theory. Miller's living systems theory was particularly influential in sociology from the time of the early systems movement. Models for dynamic equilibrium in systems analysis that contrasted classical views from Talcott Parsons and George Homas were influential in integrating concepts with the general movement. With the renewed interest in systems theory on the rise since the 1990s, Bailey (1994) notes the concept of systems in sociology dates back to Auguste Comte in the 19th century, Herbert Spencer and Vilfredo Pareto, and that sociology was readying into its centennial as the new systems theory was emerging following the World Wars. To explore the current inroads of systems theory into socioloigy (primarily in the form of complexity science) see sociology and complexity science.In sociology, members of Research Committee 51 of the International Sociological Association (which focuses on sociocybernetics), have sought to identify the sociocybernetic feedback loops which, it is argued, primarily control the operation of society. On the basis of research largely conducted in the area of education, Raven (1995) has, for example, argued that it is these sociocybernetic processes which consistently undermine well intentioned public action and are currently heading our species, at an exponentially increasing rate, toward extinction. See sustainability. He suggests that an understanding of these systems processes will allow us to generate the kind of (non common-sense) targeted interventions that are required for things to be otherwise - ie to halt the destruction of the planet.
Main article: System dynamics
System Dynamics was founded in the late 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management with the establishment of the MIT System Dynamics Group. At that time, he began applying what he had learned about systems during his work in electrical engineering to everyday kinds of systems. Determining the exact date of the founding of the field of system dynamics is difficult and involves a certain degree of arbitrariness. Jay W. Forrester joined the faculty of the Sloan School at MIT in 1956, where he then developed what is now System Dynamics. The first published article by Jay W. Forrester in the Harvard Business Review on Industrial Dynamics, was published in 1958. The members of System Dynamics Society have chosen 1957 to mark the occasion as it is the year in which the work leading to that article, which described the dynamics of a manufacturing supply chain, was done.As an aspect of systems theory, system dynamics is a method for understanding the dynamic behavior of complex systems. The basis of the method is the recognition that the structure of any system — the many circular, interlocking, sometimes time-delayed relationships among its components — is often just as important in determining its behavior as the individual components themselves. Examples are chaos theory andsocial dynamics. It is also claimed that, because there are often properties-of-the-whole which cannot be found among the properties-of-the-elements, in some cases the behavior of the whole cannot be explained in terms of the behavior of the parts. An example is the properties of these letters which when considered together can give rise to meaning which does not exist in the letters by themselves. This further explains the integration of tools, like language, as a more parsimonious process in the human application of easiest path adaptability through interconnected systems. One of the weaknesses of System dynamics is the fact that it does not pay attention much to dynamic causation in interelated entities.
Main article: Systems Engineering
Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means for enabling the realization and deployment of successful systems. It can be viewed as the application of engineering techniques to the engineering of systems, as well as the application of a systems approach to engineering efforts. Systems Engineering integrates other disciplines and specialty groups into a team effort, forming a structured development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation and disposal. Systems Engineering considers both the business and the technical needs of all customers, with the goal of providing a quality product that meets the user needs.
Main article: Systems psychology
Systems psychology is a branch of psychology that studies human behaviour and experience in complex systems. It is inspired by systems theory and systems thinking, and based on the theoretical work of Roger Barker, Gregory Bateson, Humberto Maturana and others. It is an approach in psychology, in which groups and individuals, are considered as systems in homeostasis. Systems psychology includes the domain of engineering psychology, but in addition is more concerned with societal systems and with the study of motivatial, affective, cognitive and group behavior than is engineering psychology. In systems psychology characteristics of organizational behaviour for example individual needs, rewards, expectations, and attributes of the people interacting with the systems are considered in the process in order to create an effective system.. The Systems psychology includes in an illusion of homeostatic systems, although most of the living systems are in a continuous disequilibrium of various degrees.
^ Lawrence S. Bale (1995). Gregory Bateson, Cybernetics and the Social.Behavioral Sciences. Paper published in: Cybernetics and Human Knowing: a Journal of Second Order Cybernetics and Cyber-Semiotics. Vol. 3 no. 1 1995 pp. 27-45.
^ Bertalanffy (1950: 142)
^ a b c d (Laszlo 1974)
^ (Schein 1980: 4-11)
^ Laslo (1972: 14-15)
^ (Banathy 1997: ¶ 22)
^ a b 1968, General System theory: Foundations, Development, Applications, New York: George Braziller, revised edition 1976: ISBN 0-8076-0453-4
^ (see Steiss 1967; Buckley, 1967)
^ Peter Senge (2000: 27-49)
^ (Bailey 1994: 3-8; see also Owens 2004)
^ (Bailey 1994: 3-8)
^ (Bailey 1994; Flood 1997; Checkland 1999; Laszlo 1972)
^ (Hammond 2003: 12-13)
^ (Hammond 2003: 229-233)
^ (GST p.32)
^ perspectives_on_general_system_theory [ProjectsISSS]
^ von Bertalanffy, Ludwig, (1974) Perspectives on General System Theory Edited by Edgar Taschdjian. George Braziller, New York
^ main_systemsinquiry [ProjectsISSS]
^ (see Ash 1992: 198-207)
^ Thomé, Bernhard (1993). Systems Engineering: Principles and Practice of Computer-based Systems Engineering. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-93552-2.
^ INCOSE. What is Systems Engineering. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
^ Lester R. Bittel and Muriel Albers Bittel (1978), Encyclopedia of Professional Management, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0070054789, p.498.
^ Michael M. Behrmann (1984), Handbook of Microcomputers in Special Education. College Hill Press. ISBN 093301435X. Page 212.
Ackoff, R. (1978). The art of problem solving. New York: Wiley.
Ash, M.G. (1992). Cultural Contexts and Scientific Change in Psychology: Kurt Lewin in Iowa.American Psychologist, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 198–207.
Bailey, K.D. (1994). Sociology and the New Systems Theory: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis. New York: State of New York Press.
Bánáthy, B (1996) Designing Social Systems in a Changing World New York Plenum
Bánáthy, B. (1991) Systems Design of Education. Englewood Cliffs: Educational Technology Publications
Bánáthy, B. (1992) A Systems View of Education. Englewood Cliffs: Educational Technology Publications. ISBN 0-87778-245-8
Bánáthy, B.H. (1997).A Taste of Systemics, The Primer Project, Retrieved May 14, (2007)
Bateson, G. (1979). Mind and nature: A necessary unity. New York: Ballantine
Bausch, Kenneth C. (2001) The Emerging Consensus in Social Systems Theory, Kluwer Academic New York ISBN 0-306-46539-6
Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1968). General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications New York: George Braziller
Bertalanffy, L. von. (1950).An Outline of General Systems Theory.British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 1, No. 2.
Bertalanffy, L. von. (1955).An Essay on the Relativity of Categories.Philosophy of Science, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 243–263.
Bertalanffy, Ludwig von. (1968). Organismic Psychology and Systems Theory. Worchester: Clark University Press.
Bertalanffy, Ludwig Von. (1974). Perspectives on General System Theory Edited by Edgar Taschdjian. George Braziller, New York.
Buckley, W. (1967). Sociology and Modern Systems Theory. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs.
Mario Bunge (1979) Treatise on Basic Philosophy, Volume 4. Ontology II A World of Systems. Dordrecht, Netherlands: D. Reidel.
Capra, F. (1997). The Web of Life-A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems, Anchor ISBN 978-0385476768
Checkland, P. (1981). Systems thinking, Systems practice. New York: Wiley.
Checkland, P. 1997. Systems Thinking, Systems Practice. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Churchman, C.W. (1968). The systems approach. New York: Laurel.
Churchman, C.W. (1971). The design of inquiring systems. New York: Basic Books.
Corning, P. 1983) The Synergism Hupothesis: A Theory of Progressive Evolution. New York: McGraw Hill
Davidson, Mark. (1983). Uncommon Sense: The Life and Thought of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Father of General Systems Theory. Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher, Inc.
Durand, D. La systémique, Presses Universitaires de France
Flood, R.L. 1999. Rethinking the Fifth Discipline: Learning within the unknowable. London: Routledge.
Charles François. (2004). Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics, Introducing the 2nd Volume  and further links to the ENCYCLOPEDIA, K G Saur, Munich  see also  Kahn, Herman. (1956). Techniques of System Analysis, Rand Corporation Laszlo, E. (1995). The Interconnected Universe. New Jersey, World Scientific. ISBN 981-02-2202-5
François, C. (1999). Systemics and Cybernetics in a Historical Perspective Jantsch, E. (1980). The Self Organizing Universe. New York: Pergamon.
Gorelik, G. (1975) Reemergence of Bogdanov's Tektology in. Soviet Studies of Organization, Academy of Management Journal. 18/2, pp. 345–357
Hammond, D. 2003. The Science of Synthesis. Colorado: University of Colorado Press.
Hinrichsen, D. and Pritchard, A.J. (2005) Mathematical Systems Theory. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-44125-0
Hull, D.L. 1970. Systemic Dynamic Social Theory.Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 11, Issue 3, pp. 351–363.
Jackson, M.C. 2000. Systems Approaches to Management. London: Springer.
Klir, G.J. 1969. An Approach to General Systems Theory. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
Ervin László 1972. The Systems View of the World. New York: George Brazilier.
Laszlo, E. (1972a). The systems view of the world. The natural philosophy of the new developments in the sciences. New York: George Brazillier. ISBN 0-8076-0636-7
Laszlo, E. (1972b). Introduction to systems philosophy. Toward a new paradigm of contemporary thought. San Francisco: Harper.
Laszlo, Ervin. 1996. The Systems View of the World. Hampton Press, NJ. (ISBN 1-57273-053-6).
Lemkow, A. (1995) The Wholeness Principle: Dynamics of Unity Within Science, Religion & Society. Quest Books, Wheaton.
Niklas Luhmann (1996),Social Systems,Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, CA
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Olmeda, Christopher J. (1998). Health Informatics: Concepts of Information Technology in Health and Human Services. Delfin Press. ISBN 0982144210
Owens, R.G. (2004). Organizational Behavior in Education: Adaptive Leadership and School Reform, Eighth Edition. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Pharaoh, M.C. (online). Looking to systems theory for a reductive explanation of phenomenal experience and evolutionary foundations for higher order thought Retrieved Dec.14 2007.
Schein, E.H. (1980). Organizational Psychology, Third Edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Peter Senge (1990). The Fifth Discipline. The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday.
Senge, P., Ed. (2000). Schools That Learn: A Fifth Discipline Fieldbook for Educators, Parents, and Everyone Who Cares About Education. New York: Doubleday Dell Publishing Group.
Steiss, A.W. (1967). Urban Systems Dynamics. Toronto: Lexington Books.
Gerald Weinberg. (1975). An Introduction to General Systems Thinking (1975 ed., Wiley-Interscience) (2001 ed. Dorset House).
Wiener, N. (1967). The human use of human beings. Cybernetics and Society. New York: Avon.
Humane Systems Design (semi-annotated)
Sociology and Complexity Website
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JUSTIN WEBB VIDEO
US to regulate CO2 emissions APR 17,09
The US government is to regulate the country's carbon dioxide emissions, having decided that it and five other greenhouse gases may endanger human health and well-being. The decision marks a major change from the Bush presidency, when the Environmental Protection Agency argued it could not regulate CO2 because the gas was not a pollutant.Justin Webb report from Washington.
LAND FOR PEACE (THE FUTURE 7 YEARS OF HELL ON EARTH)
2 I will also gather all nations, and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat, and will plead with them there for my people and for my heritage Israel, whom they have scattered among the nations, and parted my land.
THE WEEK OF DANIEL 9:27 WE KNOW ITS 7 YRS
Heres the scripture 1 week = 7 yrs Genesis 29:27-29
27 Fulfil her week, and we will give thee this also for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years.
28 And Jacob did so, and fulfilled her week: and he gave him Rachel his daughter to wife also.
29 And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah his handmaid to be her maid.
26 And after threescore and two weeks(62X7=434 YEARS+7X7=49 YEARS=TOTAL OF 69 WEEKS OR 483 YRS) shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary;(ROMAN LEADERS DESTROYED THE 2ND TEMPLE) and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.(THERE HAS TO BE 70 WEEKS OR 490 YRS TO FUFILL THE VISION AND PROPHECY OF DAN 9:24).(THE NEXT VERSE IS THAT 7 YR WEEK OR (70TH FINAL WEEK).
27 And he( THE ROMAN,EU PRESIDENT) shall confirm the covenant with many for one week:(1X7=7 YEARS) and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease,(3 1/2 yrs in TEMPLE SACRIFICES STOPPED) and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.
ISAIAH 28:14-19 (THIS IS THE 7 YR TREATY COVENANT OF DANIEL 9:27)
14 Wherefore hear the word of the LORD, ye scornful men, that rule this people which is in Jerusalem.
15 Because ye have said, We have made a covenant with death, and with hell are we at agreement; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, it shall not come unto us: for we have made lies our refuge, and under falsehood have we hid ourselves:
16 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation: he that believeth shall not make haste.
17 Judgment also will I lay to the line, and righteousness to the plummet: and the hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies, and the waters shall overflow the hiding place.
18 And your covenant with death shall be disannulled, and your agreement with hell shall not stand; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, then ye shall be trodden down by it.
19 From the time that it goeth forth it shall take you: for morning by morning shall it pass over, by day and by night: and it shall be a vexation only to understand the report.
Arab peace plan as part of Palestinian state push: U.S. By Mohammed Assadi – Fri Apr 17, 2:07 pm ET
RAMALLAH (Reuters) – U.S. Middle East envoy George Mitchell said on Friday that an Arab peace initiative should be part of a planned U.S. drive to create a Palestinian state.In two separate violent incidents in the West Bank on Friday, Israelis killed two Palestinian men.The Arab initiative of 2002 offers Israel normal ties with all Arab states in return for a full withdrawal from the lands it seized in the 1967 Middle East war, creation of a Palestinian state and a just solution for Palestinian refugees.The U.S. is committed to the establishment of a sovereign independent Palestinian state where the aspirations of the Palestinian people to control their destiny are realized. We want the Arab peace initiative to be part of the effort to reach this goal,Mitchell said after talks with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas in the West Bank city of Ramallah.Mitchell did not elaborate on what part the Arab initiative might play in U.S. attempts to mediate a two-state solution between Israelis and Palestinians.U.S. leaders including President Barack Obama have made references to the Arab peace plan without ever endorsing the Arab demand that Israel withdraw from all the land Israel captured in the 1967 Middle East war -- the West Bank including East Jerusalem, the Syrian Golan Heights, and the Gaza Strip, which is under siege.The previous U.S. administration of George W. Bush tried without success to use the Arab peace plan to draw Saudi Arabia and other conservative Gulf states into contacts with Israel before the Israelis gave any commitment to full withdrawal.
But Mitchell's remarks were another reminder to Israel's new right-wing prime minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, that the United States wants to see progress.
Netanayahu, who saw Mitchell on Thursday, has yet to give a commitment to restart U.S.-backed talks with Abbas on core issues such as statehood borders, and the future of Jerusalem and Palestinian refugees.Israeli officials quoted Netanyahu as telling Mitchell that his right-leaning government wanted the Palestinians to first recognize Israel as a Jewish state. Palestinians have long rejected such explicit recognition of the Jewish nature of a state where one in five people is Arab.It is clear that there is a government in Israel that rejects signed agreements, that insists on continuing settlement activities,senior Palestinian negotiator Saeb Erekat said.
Erekat said Abbas asked Mitchell to exert every possible effort to pressure Israel to commit to a two-state solution and to meet other obligations, including a freeze in Jewish settlement building in the occupied West Bank and a halt to home demolitions in Arab East Jerusalem.Netanyahu's two-week-old government has yet to take a public position on the Arab peace initiative.But in their meeting on Thursday, Netanyahu spoke to Mitchell about the need to involve in the process important moderate Arab states,including Egypt, Jordan and Saudi Arabia, a senior Israeli official said.
Another senior Israeli official quoted Mitchell as telling Netanyahu: We intend to seriously examine the Arab proposal.A senior Western diplomat familiar with the Obama administration's deliberations said Washington wanted to pursue the Arab peace initiative but was keeping its options open.We have put the flag squarely in the two-state solution camp but we haven't said how you get there, the diplomat said.
Netanyahu's predecessor, Ehud Olmert, said he saw positive points in the Arab peace initiative. But Israel opposes the return of Palestinian refugees to their former homes in what is now the Jewish state and wants to hold on to major settlement blocs in the West Bank. Mitchell's next stop is Egypt.
WEST BANK VIOLENCE
Palestinian hospital officials said a 30-year-old man died of a wound to the chest during a protest at the village of Bilin, site of almost weekly protests against the separation barrier which Israel is building in the Palestinian territory. Earlier in the day a Palestinian with a knife infiltrated the Jewish settlement of Beit Haggai in the southern West Bank and was shot dead by a security guard, the Israeli army said. In Gaza, Islamist Hamas's two senior leaders, Ismail Haniyeh and Mahmoud al-Zahar made their first public appearances, delivering sermons in mosques, witnesses said. The two went to ground and witnesses said that neither had been seen in public since December 27, when Israel launched a 22-day offensive to counter Palestinian short-range rocket fire from the Gaza Strip. The territory has been largely quiet since the Netanyahu government took power this month. He has set toppling Hamas among his long-term goals. (Additional reporting by Adam Entous and Dan Williams in Jerusalem and Nidal al-Mughrabi in Gaza, Writing by Ori Lewis and Adam Entous; Editing by Jonathan Wright)
US envoy meets Palestinian leader in peace bid by Nasser Abu Bakr – Fri Apr 17, 11:43 am ET
RAMALLAH, West Bank (AFP) – US special envoy George Mitchell met Palestinian leader Mahmud Abbas on Friday amid warnings that peace talks will remain stagnant unless Israel's new government commits to a two-state solution.Until the (Benjamin) Netanyahu government unequivocally affirms its support for the two-state solution, implements Israel?s roadmap obligations and abides by previous agreements, Palestinians have no partner for peace,top negotiator Saeb Erakat said after the meeting in the West Bank town of Ramallah.Mitchell emerged from the talks reiterating the two-state solution is the only solution and that a comprehensive peace in the region is in the US national interest.The largely right-wing cabinet of Israel's hawkish prime minister has distanced itself from past governments' support for the US-backed concept of a Palestinian state alongside Israel, and has called previous agreements into question.Mitchell and Abbas both emphasised the shared commitment of the (President Barack) Obama administration and the Palestinian leadership to the two-state solution,Erakat said in a statement.In the Gaza Strip, the territory's ruling Islamist Hamas movement in a statement called for action from Washington.We expect deeds, not fine words... The United States must adopt a clear stance against (Israeli) settlements on occupied Palestinian lands.Friday's Abbas-Mitchell talks came after meetings in Jerusalem on Thursday that highlighted the rift between the United States and Israel over the Middle East peace process.
While Mitchell stressed the US commitment to a two-state solution, Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman said Israel's government needed time to come up with a new approach as the peace process had reached a dead end.Prime Minister Netanyahu said Israel expected the Palestinians to recognise the state of Israel as the state of the Jewish people.Palestinians angrily rejected that demand, which Erakat stressed does not figure in any peace treaty and does not conform with international law.Netanyahu?s new condition serves no other purpose than to stall progress towards negotiations, and to save his government from having to deal with the real issues,he said.Erakat named the issues as Israel?s refusal to end its occupation, to freeze all settlement activity, to lift restrictions on Palestinian movement, and to unequivocally support the two-state solution.For Palestinians, recognising Israel as a Jewish state would amount to abandoning the right to return of refugees, a key issue in the peace talks.
The contrasting positions highlighted the risk that Israel could be on a collision course with its most important ally, as Washington insists on the principle of a Palestinian state and Netanyahu refuses to endorse the plan.But Israeli media stressed that Mitchell willingly gave Netanyahu's government six to eight more weeks to formulate its policy, in inviting the prime minister to meet with Obama in May.
It is possible that a crisis with the American administration is on its way, and the route is leading to a collision, but for now the situation is under control, the Maariv daily said.Netanyahu says that the economy in the Israeli-occupied West Bank must improve before any other steps are taken in the faltering peace process.
Lieberman also sparked concerns by declaring that the new cabinet was not bound by a US-backed 2007 agreement to relaunch talks with the Palestinians. Israel has committed itself to the principle of a Palestinian state under the 2003 international roadmap for peace, which included a series of steps for Israelis and Palestinians to follow, eventually resulting in negotiations over core issues and the creation of a Palestinian state. The plan has made little progress since its launch by the Middle East Quartet -- the European Union, Russia, the United Nations and the United States.
Mitchell who arrived in Israel on Wednesday, was due to fly on to Cairo. The former US senator played a key role in reaching the 1998 Good Friday accords that ended decades of violence in Northern Ireland.
EARTH DESTROYED WITH THE EARTH
11 The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.(WORLD TERRORISM,MURDERS)
12 And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.
13 And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence (TERRORISM) through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.
7 For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places.
8 All these are the beginning of sorrows.
8 For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom:(ETHNIC GROUP AGAINST ETHNIC GROUP) and there shall be earthquakes in divers places, and there shall be famines and troubles: these are the beginnings of sorrows.
11 And great earthquakes shall be in divers places, and famines, and pestilences; and fearful sights and great signs shall there be from heaven.
QUAKE IN AFGHAN
Deadly quakes strike Afghanistan Villagers sift through the rubble APR 17,09
Two moderate earthquakes have hit eastern Afghanistan, killing at least 22 people and destroying about 200 homes, officials say. The US Geological Survey says a 5.5-magnitude quake struck at 0157 local time (2127 GMT), followed by a 5.1-magnitude aftershock two hours later. The quakes struck in Nangarhar province, about 50 miles (80km) east of Kabul near the Pakistan border. At least four villages were reported to have suffered serious damage. A provincial official in Jalalabad told the BBC that at least 30 people were also reported to be injured and that rescuers had been sent to the scene to retrieve bodies and help those hurt. The official said he feared the death toll could go higher.
Ahmad Shekib Hamraz, a disaster management official, told AFP news agency the centre of the earthquake is located 45km (28 miles) from Sherzad district. An earlier photograph of Sherzad district, said to have been hit Survivors in Mir Gadkhel village were scrambling through the rubble of flattened houses to recover bodies after the quake, Reuters reported. Three of my family members were killed and seven are injured,villager Gul Mohammad said. I think about 40 people have died. Hundreds of houses have been destroyed.The earthquake is in a remote area that is difficult to reach by vehicle, the BBC's Martin Patience in Kabul says. The mountains of northern Afghanistan and Pakistan are hit by dozens of minor earthquakes every year. Because many Afghan homes are made of dried mud, even minor tremors can cause high casualties and widespread damage, our correspondent says. A 7.6-magnitude earthquake that rocked north-west Pakistan in October 2005 killed 74,000 people and displaced 3.5 million.
25 And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity;(MASS CONFUSION) the sea and the waves roaring;(FIERCE WINDS)
26 Men’s hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken.
Thousands flee as cyclone nears Bangladesh AccuWeather Fri Apr 17, 6:15 am ET
DHAKA (AFP) – Weather forecasters in Bangladesh said a tropical cyclone would hit the country's southern coast late Friday, as thousands of people in the path of the storm were evacuated from coastal areas.Cyclonic Storm Bijli was expected to intensify in the Bay of Bengal before making landfall near the southern port city of Chittagong.We have told everyone living in low lying areas to head to their nearest cyclone shelter,said Mohammad Manzoor Alam Bhuiyan, an administrator of one of the affected districts along the 300-kilometre (186-mile) coast.Alam expected the more than 500 cyclone shelters in his region, which have a collective capacity of 500,000 people, to be full before the end of the day.We have arranged dry food and clean drinking water. There is a medical team on standby.Boats had been brought to shore and fishermen were urged not to sail. Flights to and from Cox's Bazar and Chittagong were also suspended.More than 3,500 people were killed during Cyclone Sidr in November 2007, the second-strongest storm recorded in Bangladesh.In 1970, some half a million people died when a cyclone hit the impoverished country, while an estimated 138,000 people died as a result of a cyclonic surge in 1991.The lower death tolls in 1991 and 2007 were attributed to a network of cyclone shelters and a warning system introduced after the 1970 disaster.In neighbouring Myanmar, the military-run government's meteorological service urged residents of the country's western coastal region to stay away from the sea for two days until Bijli had passed.
All vessels... in Myanmar waters along the Rakhine coast are advised to take precautionary measures by navigating away from the area exposed to the threat from rough seas and strong winds until 18 April 2009,it said.In April last year Myanmar was hit by Cyclone Nargis, which left an estimated 138,000 people dead or missing and affected some 2.4 million people, mostly in its southwest delta region.
7 And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come and see.
8 And I looked, and behold a pale horse:(CHLORES GREEN) and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword,(WEAPONS) and with hunger,(FAMINE) and with death,(INCURABLE DISEASES) and with the beasts of the earth.(ANIMAL TO HUMAN DISEASE).
Bangladesh slaughters 2,300 birds over avian flu Fri Apr 17, 12:59 pm ET
DHAKA (AFP) – Bangladesh has culled 2,300 chickens this week, an official said Friday, as the impoverished country tries to contain a new outbreak of avian flu.
Ibrahim Hossain, who heads a government task force on the H5N1 strain, told AFP the birds had been killed after the virus was detected on a farm in Savar, just outside the capital Dhaka.Bangladesh was hit by bird flu in February 2007 with more than one million birds slaughtered. The last major outbreak was in November in which 10,000 birds were culled over a two-month period.Hossain said the virus appeared to be under control.Infection rates are much reduced this year. Last year we culled 1.65 million chickens in total and for this year we have culled 20,000 so far.Bangladesh's poultry industry is one of the world's largest, producing 220 million chickens and 37 million ducks annually.
VA says 3 positive HIV tests from follow-up tests By BILL POOVEY, Associated Press Writer APR 17,09
CHATTANOOGA, Tenn. – Three patients exposed to contaminated medical equipment at Veterans Affairs hospitals have tested positive for HIV, the agency said Friday. Initial tests show one patient each from VA medical facilities in Murfreesboro, Tenn.; Augusta, Ga.; and Miami has the virus that causes AIDS, according to a VA statement.The three cases included one positive HIV test reported earlier this month, but the VA didn't identify the facility involved at the time.The patients are among more than 10,000 getting tested because they were treated with endoscopic equipment that wasn't properly sterilized and exposed them to other people's body fluids.
Vietnam veteran Samuel Mendes, 60, said he was surprised to learn of an HIV case linked to the Miami facility, where he had a colonoscopy. He was told he wasn't among those at risk.I was hoping and expecting to not get anyone contaminated like that, he said. It's probably a little worse than we thought.The VA also said there have been six positive tests for the hepatitis B virus and 19 positive tests for hepatitis C at the three locations.There's no way to prove patients were exposed to the viruses at its facilities, the agency said.These are not necessarily linked to any endoscopy issues and the evaluation continues,the statement said.The VA has said it does not yet know if veterans treated with the same kind of equipment at its other 150 hospitals may have been exposed to the same mistake before the department had a nationwide safety training campaign.An agency spokeswoman has said the mistake with the equipment was corrected nationwide by the time the campaign ended March 14. The problems discovered in December date back more than five years at the Murfreesboro and Miami hospitals.The VA's disclosure Friday was the department's first comment since April 3, when the VA reported the one positive HIV test.VA spokeswoman Katie Roberts has declined to provide any details on how widespread the problems might have been other than saying a review of the situation continues.
She said in an e-mail Friday that there is a very small risk of harm to patients from the procedures at each site.She said the HIV results still need to be verified in additional tests.The VA statement shows the number of potentially affected patients totals 10,797, including 6,387 who had colonoscopies at Murfreesboro, 3,341 who had colonoscopies at Miami and 1,069 who were treated at the ear, nose and throat clinic at Augusta.More than 5,400 patients, about half of those at risk, have been notified of their follow-up test results, the VA said.The Friday statement said the VA is continuing to notify individuals whose letters have been returned as undeliverable, and working with homeless coordinators to reach veterans with no known home address.
The statement also said the VA has assigned more than 100 employees at the three locations to ensure that affected veterans receive prompt testing and appropriate counseling.All three sites used endoscopic equipment made by Olympus American Inc., which has said in a statement it is helping the VA address problems with inadvertently neglecting to appropriately reprocess a specific auxiliary water tube.
Charles Rollins, 62, who served three tours in Vietnam with the Navy from 1966 to 1969, said the news concerns him because he's used the Augusta ear, nose and throat clinic several times. That's terrible,he said by phone as he socialized at an American Legion post in Augusta. Associated Press writers Lisa Orkin in Miami and Dorie Turner in Atlanta contributed to this report.
AUDIO PORK BARREL SPENDING
Congress spending billions anonymously,Pork whistleblowers expose offenders from both parties April 17, 2009 12:00 am Eastern 2009 WorldNetDaily
A spokeswoman for an organization that highlights "pork" project funding by members of the U.S. Congress says there have been changes in Washington in recent weeks and months – lawmakers are leaving their names off of the projects they want. After we started going through it we started seeing a lot of anonymous earmarks, $7.8 billion in total,said Leslie Paige of Citizens Against Government Waste. Most were in the defense appropriations bill, with no name attached. In a lot of cases they don't even have a state identified [for where the money is going].Her comments came in an interview with Greg Corombos of Radio America/WND. The audio of the interview has been embedded here: The organization honored a number of projects, including the plan by Sen. Tom Harkin, D-Iowa, to spend $1.8 million for swine odor and manure management research.The Narcissist Award went to Sen. Pat Roberts, R-Kan., for $2 million for the Pat Roberts Intelligence Scholars Program. Another spending program highlighted was by Rep. Howard Berman, D-Calif., who is spending $200,000 for tattoo removal. The Dim Bulb Award went to Michigan Sens. Carl Levin and Debbie Stabenow, both Democrats, and Rep. Carolyn Kirkpatrick, another Democrat, for $951.500 for street lamps in Detroit.
Sen. Thad Cochran, R-Miss., led the way with $653 million in pork, the organization said. The report said this year's Pig Book cites 10,160 projects costing $19.6 billion, up from $17.2 billion from a year ago. Among other spending plans: $3.8 million for the Old Tiger Stadium Conservancy in Detroit; $1.9 million for the Pleasure Beach water taxi service in Connecticut; and $95,000 for the Canton Symphony Orchestra Association in Ohio. Regardless of what you think you've heard about pork projects, they are not in any way reducing,Paige said. I think what's being promoted and promulgated in the media and by members of the leadership of this House and Senate are telling everybody is just not true,she said.
CNN AT TEA PARTY HASSELING TAX PEOPLE
I NEVER KNEW ANDERSON COOPER OF CNN WAS GAY,ONE GUY WAS AT THE TEA PARTY WERE COOPER WAS AND HIM AND HIS LOVER WERE HOLDING HANDS AND MAKING FUN AND ACTING NUTS LIKE TYPICAL GAYS AT PARADES AND EVENTS,INTERESTING.
A REVOLUTIONARY IDEA 1 million attend tea parties in 50 states,Obama has awakened a sleeping giant April 17, 2009 12:00 am Eastern By Jerome Corsi and Chelsea Schilling 2009 WorldNetDaily
Aerial view of Alamo tea party protest in San Antonio, Texas (photo: Texas Tea Parties)An estimated 1 million Americans participated in at least 1,000 tea parties, according to reports by organizers tabulating the nationwide numbers, with documented protests held in 50 states. Grover Norquist, president of Americans for Tax Reform told WND, The Obama administration has awakened a sleeping giant.Tax Day Tea Party national event coordinator Amy Kremer told WND she has confirmed that more than 850 parties took place. She has at least 100 more reports in her e-mail inbox that have not been posted. Sign a petition calling on Congress and the president to halt out-of-control spending Asked how many people attended the events, she responded, I would estimate it at over 1 million. I'm waiting on more numbers to come in from organizers right now. I can tell you it is absolutely over 750,000 right now.The largest protests occurred in Atlanta, Ga., with 15,000 participants. As many as 10,000 protesters participating in Sacramento, Calif., and Overland Park, Kan., according to data compiled by Americans for Tax Reform on more than 207 tea parties. Americans for Tax Reform has established an Internet page on the group's website where organizers of tea parties can submit attendance estimates to be included in the running tally.
Michael DePrimo, special counsel to American Family Association President Tim Wildmon, told WND that AFA's tea party website, Tea Party Day, had 2,031 confirmations that tea parties were to be held in as many cities. Since yesterday, we have had 394 cities give us reports, many with photographs, about the tea parties that were held,he said.We have not been able to get all the information up. We expect more to come in as the days go by.Glenn Beck reported yesterday on his Fox News program that official estimates of the participation in the Tea Party held in San Antonio, Texas, reached as many as 20,000 people. The Glenn Beck show broadcast on Fox News live on April 15, from the Tea Party held at the Alamo in San Antonio. The establishment in Washington, D.C., is terrified,Norquist said. There were no such demonstrations four months into the administrations of Democratic presidents Carter or Clinton.Norquist told WND that the Obama administration was taken by surprise by the nationwide protests because the administration had calculated increased government spending was supposed to be the popular part of President Obama's economic stimulus plan. Instead, Norquist said, the tea parties held in every state on Wednesday proved Americans nationwide are demonstrating in anger and disappointment against Obama administration plans for massive deficit spending. Tax Day protester in Kansas City, Mo., holds sign (photo: Posted to Tea Party Day)Imagine what happens when President Obama, House Speaker Pelosi and Majority Leader Reid begin to pay for their spend-fest with higher taxes and inflation,Norquist said. Kremer said the mainstream media have completely neglected their duty to accurately report on this nationwide movement. It's amazing that the mainstream media is reporting it the way that they are,she said. It's just crazy. It's basically just going to come down to us. We're now reporting it ourselves because they are not reporting it accurately.
Many say the mainstream media attempted either to ignore the protests altogether or characterized tea partiers as disgruntled Republicans unable to accept that they lost the 2008 presidential campaign or as rich taxpayers unwilling to pay their fair burden of taxes. However, Kremer said she is constantly receiving reports from organizers about the movement's resounding success. I think it was an absolute success,she said.We want to send a message to them: We hired them; we can fire them. They work for us. They seem to have forgotten that.She continued, If it means we have to go after every incumbent in office from now until 2012, we will do that. But the American people are tired of sitting by, and they are starting to step forward and take notice.
Did anybody notice? HAL LINDSEY April 17, 2009 1:00 am Eastern 2009
Hundreds of thousands of Americans came together in more than 300 locations across the nation to shout, Enough government! They met on Tax Day to protest the expanding government apparatus and big government spending. Thousands of protesters – some dressed in colonial wigs with tea bags hanging from their eyeglasses – showed up in states from California to Kentucky to Massachusetts, holding signs and reading speeches in protest of the Obama administration's tax-and-spend policies. It was probably the largest grass-roots organized event in the history of the republic. The governor of the state of Texas openly accused the federal government of overturning the rights we had one by one, making choices that would leave our Founding Fathers scratching their heads.Gov. Perry spoke to the crowd of thousands who turned out for the Dallas tea party. Perry went so far as to remind Washington that Texas retains the right as a republic to secede from the Union. Don't tread on me. But as far as much of the mainstream media were concerned, it all might just as well have happened on the dark side of the moon. The New York Times completely ignored a nationwide anti-government protest in favor of a demonstration in Afghanistan.
Plumb the depths of our in-the-tank news industry with A Slobbering Love Affair: The True (and Pathetic) Story of the Torrid Romance Between Barack Obama and the Mainstream Media.What mainstream attention the effort did get was heavily propagandized. CNN openly mocked the tea parties and their thousands of participants as if they were all morons. MSNBC launched an all-out effort to marginalize it as a GOP political operation. Brent Bozell, president of the conservative Media Research Center, said the media coverage was insulting.I've never seen anything like it, Bozell said. The oral sex jokes on (CNN) and particularly MSNBC on teabagging ... they had them by the dozens. That's how insulting they were toward people who believe they're being taxed too highly.White House press secretary Robert Gibbs said the White House was amused by the tea parties, but that nobody out there is making $250,000 a year – as if that were somehow relevant. President Obama said that he was completely unaware of the tea party protests. How can it be that the president could be unaware of a grass-roots protest movement of this size and scope? Doesn't he have a TV? Actually, it was possible to watch the news of the day and scan the daily headlines and never know anything about the protests, unless one took place near your house.
Those news organizations that did take notice of the events around the country presented them as a Fox News-promoted, GOP-affiliated non-event that drew pockets of Obama-haters. Only days before, the Department of Homeland Security issued a bulletin to law-enforcement officials warning of the dangers posed by right-wing extremists that, according to the government definition from the bulletin, were the very people that showed up for the tea party demonstrations. Specifically cited were those who ... reject federal authority in favor of state and local authority.(Like tea party protesters?) I couldn't help but notice the fact that, despite the size of the crowds and the depth of their feeling, there was not a single recorded instance of violence. There was not a single riot among all those thousands of protesters in those hundreds of cities. Nobody's windows were smashed. Nobody was injured in clashes with police. Nobody was killed. It was astonishing to watch. Tens of thousands of Americans gathered together for no other purpose except to have their voices heard. They stood up ... only to discover to their shock and dismay that their own government now considers them to be enemies of the state and that the allegedly unbiased mainstream media marginalized them as nut jobs – or ignored them altogether. One would never have dreamed it possible in America. But that was before The Change That You Can Believe In. Now, it seems, anything is possible.
Tea parties: Just the beginning April 17, 2009 1:00 am Eastern 2009 WND
They came on foot, by car, on Harleys. Some were assisted by metal walkers, others pushed in strollers. They also came from divergent political parties. Some love Barack Obama, some not so much. They carried signs, chanted, laughed and listened. But they had one message: America has had enough of big government. I have been around the block a few times when it comes to political activism. I've seen the worst from anti-American punks dressed in Pepto Bismol-colored skirts and orange jumpsuits. On Wednesday, I saw the best of America, and I recognize her from her roots. Yes, I'll dare say it: The tea parties that took the country on Wednesday came from the roots of America's founding, despite what the lying, pooh-poohing, dismissive, out-of-touch mainstream media reported. Did you see the ranting of the CNN newsbabe as she failed to report on one tea party and instead resorted to a liberal lashing that only radicals would call real news. Here's video of CNN correspondent Susan Roesgen while covering a Chicago tea party. Supply-side economics' father warns of the debilitating consequences of higher taxes in The End of Prosperity: How Higher Taxes Will Doom the Economy – if We Let it Happen.Frankly, if CNN had any news judgment and even wanted to pretend to be objective, editors might want to fire Roesgen and hand her over to MSNBC where she could foam and bark with Keith Olbermann. Liberals were all for Cindy Sheehan protesting (actually sleeping in a hotel room and getting foot rubs) in Crawford, Texas. But they just hated to see true Americans giving big government the middle finger. I hate to give these nobodies attention, but you really need to look at some of the dribble coming from bloggers and the MSM. It is an idea unworthy of even Ronald Reagan at his most senile: Protest against what you perceive to be an oppressive government by gathering in a public place and waving tea bags,a lefty wrote. (Notice how liberals are so compassionate to President Reagan, who died after struggling with Alzheimer's. They are the heartless, clueless and drooling followers of their ONE, Barack Obama.) The left were emboldened with the election of their leader, Obama. But on Wednesday during the tea parties I attended, I heard outcry from Obama voters who are scared at the direction he is herding his sheeple. I heard from the elderly and the young. Most had never come to a protest before – and I didn't see a wild-eyed radical among the throngs of people who gathered.
I was in San Francisco, the belly of the leftist beast. Thousands showed up to stand for freedom. Why is this so offensive to the left? Because socialists and their brothers don't believe in freedom. They want the government to take our money, our private property, our guns, and then dish out the cash as the government sees fit. As Obama himself said during his campaign: They want to redistribute wealth. Now let me address this cockamamie idea that what happened this week from coast to coast was created by the Republicans or Fox News. I followed the tea parties along with my friend, Michelle Malkin, from the beginning. It started with a protest here and a protest there. Bloggers stepped in and the word began to spread among people who felt the same thing: There is something wrong in America. It didn't just start with this current administration. It began rearing its ugly head years ago. But like the movement against slavery in this country, the word grew. And the feeling of unease wouldn't go away. More and more Americans stepped up and said no.Then the singular cries turned into a battle cry. And, finally, Americans stood up. They would not fear the mainstream media, who mocked them. They would not fear the government, which calls them right-wing radicals. They would not fear the freaks on the left who promised to intimidate. As I walked across the street toward the federal building in San Francisco, I spoke with a woman who the day before had just completed radiation therapy for her breast cancer. But she was not going to let that stop her from expressing outrage over the direction this country is headed, including socialized medicine. Anybody who believes, who says or writes that what happened on April 15, 2009, was a right-wing conspiracy or a gathering generated from the GOP gives the Republican Party too much credit. It couldn't put together a tea party for two. An estimated 250,000 protesters came out on Wednesday. Just look at the presidential campaign and ask yourself: Could these bumbling fools get grandmas and grandchildren to march together for freedom? The Republicans couldn't even get Americans to stop supporting a socialist.
The tea parties were just a start. We will not rest until the government is back in the hands of the people, and run for the people. We won't back down, and our battle cry is freedom.Go to Aftertheteaparty.com to continue our work. Melanie Morgan is chairman of the conservative, pro-troop non-profit organization Move America Forward and co-author of American Mourning,which tells the stories of American heroism in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Her personal website is www.MelanieMorgan.com.
Dow ends best 6 weeks since 1938 on econ hopes By Ellis Mnyandu APR 17,09
NEW YORK (Reuters) – Stocks rose on Friday, with the Dow scoring its biggest six-week gain since July 1938, helped by a reassuring report on the mood of consumers and stabilization in General Electric (GE.N) and Citigroup's (C.N) quarterly results.The Dow is up 22.7 percent over the past six weeks, making this the largest six-week gain since July 29, 1938.Friday's close also marked the S&P 500's longest weekly winning streak since 2007.The Reuters/University of Michigan survey showed that U.S. consumers have more confidence in the economy than they have had since the sudden collapse of Lehman Brothers in September, the latest in a spate of data suggesting the economic slump may be easing.GE and Citigroup both posted better-than-expected results, lifting the broader market, and bank stocks rallied as investors bet other financial companies could follow up with more news showing the sector is on the mend.
Among banks, shares of Bank of America (BAC.N), due to post quarterly results on Monday, climbed 2.5 percent to $10.60. The KBW Bank index (.BKX) climbed 3.4 percent and has come close to more than doubling since its March lows. GE shares gained almost 1 percent to $12.39.The rate of deceleration in the economy is slowing, said David Lutz, managing director of trading at Stifel Nicolaus Capital Markets in Baltimore.From a macro standpoint, the reason for a lot of the drive is just that we're continuing to get data points that show things are beginning to operate very well in the credit markets.The Dow Jones industrial average (.DJI) rose 5.90 points, or 0.07 percent, to 8,131.33. The Standard & Poor's 500 Index (.SPX) climbed 4.30 points, or 0.50 percent, to 869.60. The Nasdaq Composite Index (.IXIC) added 2.63 points, or 0.16 percent, to 1,673.07.
S&P UP 28.5 PERCENT FROM MARCH LOW
The surge capped the S&P 500's longest weekly winning streak since spring 2007 and added to its strong recovery since the stock market's descent to 12-year closing lows early last month.For the week, the Dow rose 0.6 percent, the S&P 500 advanced 1.5 percent and the Nasdaq gained 1.2 percent.The benchmark S&P 500 is now up 28.5 percent since the bear market closing low of March 9. Its year-to-date drop has narrowed to about 4 percent.On Nasdaq, a 1.6 percent gain in the shares of Apple (AAPL.O), the maker of the iPhone and iPod, underpinned the technology sector's advance ahead of Apple's quarterly results next week.Apple is probably going to have positive things to say,added Lutz.Apple's stock closed at $123.42, while Google (GOOG.O) gained 0.9 percent to $392.24, a day after posting a stronger-than-expected quarterly profit.
MCDONALD'S GAINS, BUT CITI FALLS
Also underpinning the market's advance were the gains in the shares of companies seen better able to withstand economic downturns. Shares of fast-food company McDonald's Corp (MCD.N) rose 2.5 percent to $56.09 after its chief executive told CNBC that he saw some thawing in economic conditions. The stock gave the top boost to the Dow.
Deutsche Bank said Procter & Gamble (PG.N), Colgate-Palmolive (CL.N) and Kimberly-Clark Corp (KMB.N) were undervalued at current levels. P&G rose 2.4 percent to $51.66, making it the Dow's second-biggest advancer, while shares of diversified health-care company Johnson & Johnson (JNJ.N) added 1.6 percent to $53.05. Profit-taking ahead of the weekend, however, tempered some of the upside, according to traders.
Citigroup reported a smaller-than-expected first-quarter loss, but its shares dropped almost 9 percent to $3.65 as some investors paused following the stock's strong run-up since early last month when the bank said, along with others, it had had a good start to 2009. Trading was active on the New York Stock Exchange, where about 1.95 billion shares changed hands, above last year's average daily volume of 1.49 billion. On the Nasdaq, about 2.42 billion shares traded, above last year's average daily volume of 2.28 billion. Advancers outnumbered decliners by a ratio of about 2 to 1 on both the NYSE and Nasdaq.(Editing by Jan Paschal)
GM readies plans for bankruptcy it hopes to avoid By David Bailey and Kevin Krolicki APR 17,09
DETROIT (Reuters) – General Motors Corp Chief Executive Fritz Henderson said on Friday the automaker was readying detailed plans for a bankruptcy filing that now appears more likely even as it races to complete a business plan under federal oversight.Henderson said GM faced no pressure from the Obama administration's autos task force to make a decision on whether to file for bankruptcy before an established June 1 deadline and said it was feasible that the automaker could still avoid bankruptcy despite the short time frame remaining.But Henderson also said the automaker was drawing up a game plan that would let it emerge as quickly as possible from bankruptcy if it needed to take that route.Given what we need to accomplish, I certainly felt a couple weeks ago that it was more probable that we would need to go through a bankruptcy process,Henderson told reporters on a conference call. That continues today.GM, which has been operating under $13.4 billion of emergency U.S. government aid, has not yet received the $4.6 billion of additional funding it had said that it would need to continue operating through the second quarter.Under the terms of its government rescue, GM has until June 1 to prepare deep cuts in its debt, labor costs, dealership network and brands to return to profitability.The final call on any bankruptcy will not be GM's alone to make, Henderson said.This would be one the management and Treasury would arrive at together,Henderson said of bankruptcy.
Henderson, who became CEO when the Obama administration ousted his mentor and predecessor Rick Wagoner at the end of last month, oversees a company that posted $82 billion of losses since 2005.In wide-ranging remarks intended to provide an update on GM's progress over the past two weeks, Henderson said the automaker has had contact with more than six potential investors for its European Opel brand.GM shares were down 7 cents of 3.6 percent at $1.87 on Friday afternoon. The stock has lost roughly half of its value since the end of March as investors price in increasing risk of bankruptcy which would be expected to wipe out existing equity.
TAKING THE WATCH APART
If GM fails to reach agreements to make deep reductions in some $28 billion of unsecured debt, cut labor costs and rework the funding of a healthcare trust for United Auto Workers union retirees, the automaker could be forced into bankruptcy.The autos task force, which is headed by former investment banker Steve Rattner, rejected turnaround plans in late March from GM and Chrysler LLC.The task force has told Chrysler it has until the end of this month to reach agreements for an alliance with Italy's Fiat SpA, a reduction in secured debt and resolution of labor issues with its unions.The UAW has been negotiating more intensely with Chrysler now because of its looming deadline, Henderson said, adding that GM expected the pace of its talks with the union to pick up in the next few weeks.Henderson said GM managers had been focused over the past two weeks on working with U.S. officials on a thorough review of the struggling automaker's operations and finances.That means that we're quite frankly taking the watch apart and then rebuilding it and asking questions,he said.
GM expects to have a new business plan ready by this month, and will then focus on a critical round of talks with the UAW and its bondholders, Henderson said. Talks with the UAW and GM's bondholders have been largely stalled since February. The two groups are being asked to take equity instead of most of the $48 billion they are collectively owed by the automaker. Henderson also said the automaker still planned to stick to its four core brands which include Chevrolet, Cadillac, Buick and GMC, but was examining all elements of its brand strategy in its review with U.S. officials. If GM is forced to file for bankruptcy, it is considering two broad options intended to shorten the length of time the automaker would remain in court protection, Henderson said. Those options would include reaching agreements with key creditors in advance of a filing or using a bankruptcy code provision to split GM and sell some assets quickly out of bankruptcy, he said. (Additional reporting by Kevin Krolicki, Poornima Gupta, Soyoung Kim and David Bailey, editing by Dave Zimmerman and Matthew Lewis)
1 CORINTHIANS 6:9,14-18
9 Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind,
10 Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.
14 And God hath both raised up the Lord, and will also raise up us by his own power.
15 Know ye not that your bodies are the members of Christ? shall I then take the members of Christ, and make them the members of an harlot? God forbid.
16 What? know ye not that he which is joined to an harlot is one body? for two, saith he, shall be one flesh.
17 But he that is joined unto the Lord is one spirit.
18 Flee fornication. Every sin that a man doeth is without the body; but he that committeth fornication sinneth against his own body.
19 Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness,
20 Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies,
21 Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.
FIRST ISLAM NOW ALLOWS MEN TO RAPE THEIR WIVES IN MARRIAGE AND THIS SWAP (SICK)A 2 YEAR OLD FOR SISTER.ISLAM NEEDS KING JESUS BIGTIME SO THEY CAN REPENT FROM THEIR SEX SINS AGAINST GOD.LIKE I SAID BEFORE ISLAM IS A SEX FOR MURDER CULT,NO DOUBT ABOUT IT.
Islamists fight Yemen law banning child marriage By DONNA ABU-NASR, Associated Press Writer – Thu Apr 16, 3:45 pm ET
SAN'A, Yemen – She was 2 years old when her father promised her in marriage to a man in his 30s. It was a swap, so the father could marry the man's sister without paying the obligatory bride-price.At age 9, the girl was put on a sack of rice to appear taller next to the bridegroom in the wedding picture. At 11, she was taken to her husband's house to live. Despite promising not to consummate the marriage before she reached puberty, he tied her to a bed, stuffed a rag in her mouth and raped her, she says.One day he tied me up and attacked me, the girl, who is now 13 and has fled her husband, told The Associated Press on Wednesday, choking with tears during an interview at an orphanage that has given her shelter. Her name and her husband's aren't being used to protect her identity.Child marriages are widespread in Yemen, the Arab world's poorest country, where tribal customs dominate society. More than a quarter of its females marry before age 15, according to a recent report by the Social Affairs Ministry.The issue of child brides vaulted into the headlines here two years ago when an 8-year-old boldly went by herself to a courtroom and demanded a judge dissolve her marriage to a man in his 30s. She eventually won a divorce, and legislators began looking at ways to curb the practice.
In February, parliament passed a law setting the minimum marriage age at 17. But some lawmakers are trying to kill the measure, calling it un-Islamic. Before it could be ratified by Yemen's president, they forced it to be sent back to parliament's constitutional committee for review.Child marriage is an issue elsewhere. In neighboring, more affluent Saudi Arabia, several cases of child brides have been reported in the past year, though the phenomenon is not believed to be nearly as widespread as in Yemen.The U.S. on Wednesday sharply criticized the practice after a ruling by a Saudi judge upheld the marriage of a girl whose father gave her at age 8 to a man in his late 40s. The girl's mother has sought a divorce for her daughter.
Child marriage is a clear and unacceptable violation of human rights in our view. U.S. officials at all levels frequently raise with the Saudi government our human rights concerns, especially those dealing with children and marriages,State Department spokesman Robert Wood said.Saudi Arabia sets no minimum age for marriage. But the Saudi newspaper Al-Watan this week quoted the kingdom's new justice minister, Mohammed al-Issa, as saying the government is doing a comprehensive study on underage marriage that will include regulations. He did not indicate how long the process would take.In Yemen, poverty is the main reason families marry off young daughters, to get bride-prices up to several hundred dollars. Local traditions encourage the practice out of a belief a young bride can be shaped into an obedient wife, bear more children and be kept away from temptation.The weak government relies on support from tribal leaders and Islamists so is reluctant to take action on customs they support.
Yemen once set 15 as the minimum marriage age, but parliament eliminated it in the 1990s, saying parents should decide when a daughter marries.Legislator Sheik Mohammed al-Hazmi, one of the most ardent opponents of a minimum marriage age, says the new law is a Western plot aimed at Westernizing our culture.The West wants to teach us how to marry, conceive and divorce. This is cultural colonization that we reject,he told AP.Al-Hazmi said Islam permits the practice because nothing in the Quran and the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad bans it. Everything that is not forbidden is permitted,he said.Lawmaker Sheik Shawki al-Qadhi vehemently disagrees. He said that according to Islamic law a ruler can ban that which is permitted if it is proven to cause harm.Regulations short of an outright ban won't work, he said. Are we going to post a policeman at every bedroom to ensure husbands don't consummate marriages before girls reach puberty? Al-Qadhi said he is confident the new law will survive review, though some say the age could be lowered to 15. The girl who spoke with the AP is now living at the Alrahma Foundation for Human Development, an orphanage in the capital, San'a. She first came to the orphanage when her father died, when she was 11. She had not yet moved in with her husband, because the agreement had been that she would do so at puberty.But she said her brother showed up at the orphanage and persuaded her to go with him, telling her they would seek a court annulment of the marriage. Instead, he took her to her husband's house in the southern town of Thammar for a bribe of about $200, the girl said. About nine months later, the husband forced her into sex, she said.She got a chance to break away when she developed stomach and vocal cord problems last year and her husband sent her to San'a for treatment. She escaped from the house where she was staying and fled to the orphanage 10 months ago.
Today, at 13, she is learning to read and write and beginning to think about the future.I want to become a businesswoman,she said, two tiny dimples lighting up her thin face.